Vocabularies Q-Z – PART 1


I’m not qualified to give advice on such matters.
What makes you think that you are qualified for this job?


Their products are of very high quality.
I only buy good-quality wine.
He’s not interested in quality. All he cares about is making money.
Is there any significant difference in quality between these two items?

Queen ≠ King

The Queen is meeting the prime minister today.


Can I ask you a question?
I’m afraid I can’t answer that question.
They asked me quite a lot of difficult questions about my job.
I just have one question: is the treatment effective?
Don’t be afraid to ask questions.

questionnaire – ANKET

Visitors to the country have been asked to fill in a detailed questionnaire.


She was quick at understanding what we wanted her to do.
The journey was quite quick because the road was clear.
After stopping for a quick drink, they continued on their way.


He replied very quickly.
He quickly realized that she wasn’t telling the truth.
You don’t need to eat so quickly! It’s not a competition.


She spoke in a quiet voice so as not to wake him.
It’s so quiet without the kids here.

Please be quiet (= stop talking)!
Could you keep quiet while I’m on the phone, please?
She was as quiet as a mouse (= very quiet). I didn’t even know she’d come in.


Everyone was working quietly when, all of a sudden, Andrew started shouting and swearing.


We stood in a queue for half an hour.
You’ll have to join the queue.
There was a long queue to get into the cinema.

quit : give up

Would you quit your job if you inherited lots of money?
I’m going to quit smoking.


The two situations are quite different.
Are you quite sure you want to go?

rabbit : bunny

The rabbit hopped across the grass.
He waved his magic wand and a rabbit appeared.
He strolled through the fields, potting (at) the occasional rabbit.
She stroked the rabbit’s soft fur.
They have several pets – a dog, two rabbits and a guinea pig.

Incredible Race

Do you know who won/lost the race?
Let’s have a swimming race.
They’re taking part in a race to the top of Mont Blanc.
Kieran and Andrew are in a race for promotion.
[ + to infinitive ] Three newspapers are involved in a race to publish the story.


The sun came out and we saw a rainbow.
The tropical butterfly’s wings were shimmering with all the colours of the rainbow.


He achieved ambassadorial rank in 1958.
Colonel is the military rank between lieutenant-colonel and brigadier.

rapid : fast : quick

His response to the accusation was rapid.
Technological progress has been so rapid over the last few years.


It’s rather cold today, isn’t it?
That’s rather a difficult book – here’s an easier one for you.

I think I’d like to stay at home this evening rather than go out.

I’d rather have a beer.
Which would you rather do – go swimming or play tennis?

You say that you would rather do something:
I would rather play than study.
✗Don’t say: I would rather to play than study.


There must be some rational explanation for what happened.
Parents need to be fully informed so they can make a rational decision.
I’m sure there’s a rational explanation for all this.
It’s impossible to have a rational conversation with him.


They finally reached the coast after five weeks sailing.
She reached the conclusion that there was no more she could do.
The temperature is expected to reach 30°C today.
She’s grown so tall that she can reach the door handle now.
I’ve been trying to reach you on the phone all day.


She read (the poem) slowly and quietly.
He spent a pleasant afternoon reading (the newspaper/a book).
I read about the family’s success in the local paper.
It was too dark to read our map and we took a wrong turning.
He learned to read at the early age of three.


Are you ready? Hurry up – we’re late.
We’re leaving at eight o’clock, so you’ve got half an hour to get ready.
The army are said to be ready for action.


They didn’t realize the danger they were in.
“Do you realize (that) this is the third time you’ve forgotten?” she said angrily.
I realize how difficult it’s going to be, but we must try.


People give different reasons for wanting to change jobs.
We’d like to know the reason why she didn’t accept the job.
The reason I called was to ask about the plans for Saturday.
This work gives me a reason to live.
There is no reason to panic.
You have no reason to feel guilty.


Did you receive my letter?
I received a phone call from your mother.
They received a visit from the police.


I can recommend the chicken in mushroom sauce – it’s delicious.
She has been recommended for promotion.
The doctor recommended (that) I get more exercise.
We recommend that this wine should be consumed within six months.
We recommend changing your internet provider.


A referee must know all the rules of the game.
The referee blew his whistle to stop the game.


Their refusal to cooperate is completely understandable, considering the circumstances.

refuse : turn down

The boss refused our request to leave work early.


to consider or have an opinion about something or someone:

Environmentalists regard GM technology with suspicion.
Her parents always regarded her as the smartest of their children.
He is generally/widely regarded as the father of international law.

regarding : in terms of

I am calling regarding your question.
I am writing to you with regard to your letter of 15 March.


Rain is expected in mountain regions.
Alzheimer’s disease affects the regions of the brain that control memory.
Severe winter weather is expected in the northeast region of the country.


I left school at 16, but I’ve had a great life and I have no regrets.
The manager expressed deep regret at/for the number of staff reductions.
We think, much to our regret (= and we are very sorry about this), that we will not be able to visit you next year.
Is there anything you’ve done in your life that you regret?
The weather, I regret to say, is getting worse.



Scientists eventually proved a relation between smoking and lung cancer.
We’re entering a new phase in international relations.
We are on the threshold of a new era in European relations.


Scientists have established the relationship between lung cancer and smoking.
Her relationship isn’t good with her father, but she’s very close to her mother.
He has a very good relationship with his uncle.


He lost several close relatives in the war.
Most of her relatives were able to come to the wedding.
We have some distant relatives in Australia.


It seems to me that a lot of evil deeds are done in the name of religion.
The new government has promised all citizens the right to practise their religion.
The U.S. Constitution promises freedom of religion.
We respect all religions here.


“Where did you park the car?” “I can’t remember.”
I can remember people’s faces, but not their names.
She suddenly remembered (that) her keys were in her other bag.

rent : hire

I rented a car from a garage so that I could come to you.
Most students rent rooms in their second year.
I’d rather have my own house than rent.


Where can I get my shoes repaired?
The church tower is in need of repair.
The boat needed extensive repairs.
Is it too late to repair the damage we have done to our planet?


Would you mind repeating what you just said?
The test must be repeated several times.
Sorry, could you repeat that? This is a very bad connection.
She repeated the question.


We requested that the next meeting be held on a Friday.
The boss refused our request to leave work early.
Anderson repeated his request that we postpone the meeting.
I’d like to make a request.


He resigned from the company in order to take a more challenging job.


Resignation /rezigneyşın/ is written on the official paper. But, let me explain why I prefer to say “retirement”.


to stop yourself from doing something that you want to do:
She couldn’t resist laughing at him in those clothes.

to fight against something or someone that is attacking you:

The soldiers resisted (the enemy attacks) for two days.


I have great/the greatest respect for his ideas, although I don’t agree with them.
You should show more respect to your parents.
You really should treat your parents with more respect.
Please convey/give my respects to your parents.


You look exhausted/tired! Why don’t you take a rest?
I’m going upstairs to have a rest.
You’d better get some rest if you’re driving back tonight.
I think we deserve a rest after all that hard work.

I want to do something else with the rest of my life.

Rest In Peace

His broken leg is the direct result of his own carelessness.
We’ve spent a lot of money on advertising and we’re beginning to see the results.
She’s an excellent coach who knows how to get results.
Accidents are the inevitable result of driving too fast.


Since retiring from the company, she has done voluntary work for a charity.
He is due to retire as chief executive next year.


if someone is retired, they have stopped working permanently, usually because of age:

Both my parents are retired.
He is a retired airline pilot.


Many teachers over the age of 50 are taking early retirement.
What is the normal retirement age in this country?​
We wish you a long and happy retirement.


She took her revenge on him.
Revenge is a dish best served cold.
Revenge is sweet.


The committee is reviewing the current situation.
Let’s review what has happened so far.


When you ride a horse, you sit on it and control its movements.
I saw a girl riding a horse.
Can you ride?
He was riding on his horse looking for the castle.
I can give you a ride.


Do I look ridiculous in this hat?
Don’t be so ridiculous! I can’t possibly afford to stay in a hotel like that.
It’s ridiculous to expect a two-year-old to be able to read!

right now

We’re very busy right now/away.


Be careful when you cross a main road.
There’s a coffee shop on the other side of the road.
I was driving along the road when a kid suddenly stepped out in front of me.
There were lots of cars parked on the road.


It is not safe to wear so many jewelleries as it will attract robbers to rob you when you are out for shopping.


a person who takes money or property illegally


The gang admitted they had committed four recent bank robberies.
He was charged with robbery and assault.

Rome / Romans

When in Rome, do as the Romans do.


They finally found the cat up on the roof.
Put the luggage on the roof of the car.
Water was splashing from a hole in the roof.


I like this room – it has plenty of light.
I could hear people talking in the next room.
She’s waiting for you in the conference room upstairs.


Jean was my roommate during our first year at college.


You had better plant roses this year.
She sent him a bunch of red roses.
There’s no rose withoout a thorn.

rubbish : trash

I forgot to put the rubbish out this morning.
Put the empty box in the rubbish bin.
The film was rubbish.


A referee must know all the rules of the game.
The first/most important rule in life is always to appear confident.
Before you start your own business you should be familiar with the government’s rules and regulations.
You must follow/obey/observe the rules.
You must not break the rules.

Queen Victoria ruled England for 64 years.


someone such as a king or queen who has official power over a country or area.

a long, narrow, flat piece of plastic, metal, or wood with straight edges where centimetres or inches, or both are printed. It is used for measuring things and for drawing straight lines.

rumour : rumor

I heard a rumour that she’d been seeing Luke Harrison.
Rumors about her are circulating at school.
She’s circulating/spreading rumours that the manager is going to resign.

rumour has it: people are saying:
Rumour has it (that) you’re going to be the next managing director. Is it true?

sack – KOVMAK/çuval

a large bag made of strong cloth, paper, or plastic, used to store large amounts of something:

The corn was stored in large sacks.
a sack of potatoes/coal/flour

They sacked her for being late.
He got sacked from his last job.

safe and sound

After three days lost in the mountains, all the climbers arrived home safe and sound.


She always wanted to sail around the world.
The boat sailed along/down the coast.
If we sail in a southeastward direction we’ll reach land.


You ordered a mixed salad. Would you like oil and vinegar on your salad?
Lunches include soup or salad.

salary : wage

I wouldn’t work for them if they paid me twice my current salary.


Whenever you see an officer, you must salute.

salt /salt/

Can you pass the salt, please?
Add a pinch of (= small amount of) salt to the sauce.


My twin sister and I have the same mouth.
She was wearing exactly the same dress as I was.
I know a lot of people who’ve had the same problem.
Her son is the same age as mine.
I would do the same thing again if I had the chance.


The children played all day in/on the sand.
I shook the sand out of my towel.
I like to feel the sand between my toes.

Satan : Devil

the name used by Christians, Jews and Muslims for the Devil (= a powerful evil force and the enemy of God).


The arrival of satellite television changed the face of broadcasting.
This broadcast comes live via satellite from New York.
The Moon is a satellite of the Earth.


She looked at the finished painting with satisfaction.
She derived/obtained great satisfaction from/out of helping other people.
For me, job satisfaction is more important than the money.


Are you satisfied with the new arrangement?


She satisfies all the requirements for the job.
The candidates listed below have failed to satisfy the examiners.
We hope to reach an agreement which will satisfy the interests of both parties concerned.


Wearing seat belts has saved many lives.
He fell in the river but his friend saved him from drowning.
He had to borrow money to save his business.
He was desperately trying to save their failing marriage.
We all need to do our part to save the planet.


She was in the backyard sawing logs.


Small children find it difficult to say long words.
She said goodbye to all her friends and left.
Ben never forgets to say “Please” and “Thank you”.
How do you say ‘goodbye’ in French?

Say again.   

Say that again.
Say it again..

scapegoatgünah keçisi

The captain was made a scapegoat for the team’s failure.

scared of : afraid of

I am scared of telling her what really happened.
I am scared of spiders.


The majority of holiday flights depart and arrive on schedule.
Meg’s new book is still well ahead of schedule.
How can he fit everything into his busy schedule?
I’m going to be working to a very tight schedule (=including a lot of things that must be done in a short time).
He has a very busy schedule.
The president’s schedule includes a two-day visit to St Petersburg.


His mother always used to pick him up from school.
He’s one of my old friends from school.
Children start school between the ages of four and five.
His parents sent him to a private school.
He was educated at a private school instead of public/state school.

school report

Did you get the school report yesterday?

scissors /sizırs/

Use scissors to cut the shapes out.
Do you have any nail scissors?


Advances in science and technology are opening the way for new treatments.
Many leading scientists do not consider that science can give absolutely reliable knowledge.
What did you do in science class today?
Children begin secondary school with high expectations of science, but become disillusioned and uninterested, especially in physics.


A lecture is given by a scientist at each meeting.
A couple of decades ago scientists noticed Panama’s climate was slowly growing drier.
There are scientists who say that the results of the research are flawed.


And why does she have a pet scorpion?


A frog landed on her pillow and she screamed.
Through the smoke, the rescuers could hear people screaming for help.
He was screaming in/with pain.
I heard a woman in the house opposite screaming for help.
No one heard their screams.


We went swimming in the sea.
The sea was calm/smooth/choppy/rough when we crossed the Channel.
The refugees were at sea (= in a boat on the sea a long way from land) for 40 days before reaching land.


Police have carried out a search of his home.
They called off (cancelled) the search when it got dark.
The police searched the woods for the missing boy.
After a long search, they eventually found the missing papers.


”’She sells seashells on the seashore” is a well-known tongue twister.

second hand

She buys all her clothes second-hand.
This bike is second-hand but it’s still in good condition.


Why did you have to go and tell Bob about my illness? You just can’t keep a secret, can you?
A close couple should have no secrets from each other.


Does the restaurant have a non-smoking section?
This section of motorway will be under repair until January.
Dad always reads the sports section of the newspaper.
You’ll find ice cream in the frozen food section of the supermarket.


From the window we could see the children playing in the yard.
Did you see that documentary on Channel 7 last night?
I haven’t seen any shoes that I’ve wanted to buy.
The children wanted to see the circus.


He’s 16, but he often seems (to be) younger.
The children seemed (as if/as though/like they were) tired.

seesaw: teeter-totter

a long board that children play on.
The board is balanced on a central point so that when a child sits on each end they can make the board go up and down by pushing off the ground with their feet.

Kids love teeter totters!


Suddenly, he seized my hand.
I seized his arm and made him turn to look at me.
Maggie seized the letter from her.

The rebels have seized ten soldiers to use as hostages.

In everyday English, people usually say grab or grab hold of rather than seize:
She grabbed hold of his hand.


Now that we have a baby, we seldom get the chance to go to the cinema.
I seldom drive my car into the city.
Anna seldom eats at home.


Everyone is selfish from time to time. It’s part of human nature..
My colleague is so selfish.


I’ll send her a letter/email/parcel/postcard next week.
She sent a message with John to say that she couldn’t come.
I’ve sent my CV to a few companies in the region.


She was very sensitive about her scar and thought everyone was staring at her.
Sex education and birth control are sensitive issues.


What’s up – why does everyone look so serious?
Please don’t laugh. I’m serious.
She’s had a lot of boyfriends but John’s the only one she’s been serious about.


His father’s family lived in a big house with servants.
She has servants to do all her work for her.


Shake the bottle before you open it.
A young boy climbed into the apple tree and shook the branches so that the fruit fell down.
She was shaking as she opened the letter.
I was shaking like a leaf (= very nervous) before the test.
German Chancellor Angela Merkel has been seen shaking in public for the third time in less than a month, raising further concerns over her health.


What a shame that you couldn’t go to the party.
“I’m afraid I can’t come tonight.” ” Oh, that’s a shame.”
It’s such a shame they shut that factory down.


Kim’s birthday cake was in the shape of a train.
A heart shape is the symbol of love.
What shape is the table? The dining room was square in shape.
You can recognize a tree by the shape of its leaves.
For an old car, it’s in pretty good shape.


He hadn’t shaved for days.
When my dad shaved his beard (off), he looked ten years younger.
He looked as if he needed a shave.


We could see the fin of a shark as it slowly circled our boat.
Some species of shark are now endangered.


Sheep were grazing on the hillside.

sheep and lamb
ship  /şiip/

The ship sank slowly to the depths of the ocean.
There were several ships waiting in the dock for their cargo to be unloaded.
We don’t currently ship outside the EU.


I have to wear a shirt and tie to work.
You’ve spilled something down your shirt front.


When people or animals shiver, they shake slightly because they feel cold, ill, or frightened:

The poor dog – it’s shivering!

The poor dog – it’s shivering!
She shivered with cold in her thin cotton shirt.


I sat down and took off my shoes and socks.
He was wearing smart black shoes.
We used to clean our shoes every evening before we went to bed.
He put on/took off his new pair of shoes.


to take goods illegally from a shop without paying for them:
He was charged with shoplifting.

shopping mall

There are plans to build a new shopping mall in the middle of town.

shoot-V2 V3 shot

Police shot one suspect when he pulled a gun on them.
Smith killed his wife, and then shot himself.
A woman was shot dead in an attempted robbery.
Don’t shoot! I’m coming out with my hands up.
He was shot down in enemy territory.

I was five and he was six
Ben beş yaşındaydım o da altı

We rode on horses made of sticks
Sopadan yapılmış atlarımız vardı

He wore black and I wore white
O siyah giyerdi ben de beyaz

He would always win the fight
Oyunu hep o kazanırdı

Bang bang

He shot me down, bang bang
O beni vurdu, bang bang

I hit the ground, bang bang
Ben yere düştüm, bang bang

That awful sound, bang bang
O korkunç ses, bang bang

My baby shot me down.
Bebeğim beni vurdu

Seasons came and changed the time
Zaman geçti, mevsimler değişti

When I grew up, I called him mine
Büyüdüğümüzde, bana göre o benimdi

He would always laugh and say
O hep güler ve sorardı

“Remember when we used to play?”
“Oynadığımız günleri hatırladın mı?”

Bang bang

I shot you down, bang bang
Seni vurdum, bang bang

You hit the ground, bang bang
Yere düştün, bang bang

That awful sound, bang bang
O korkunç ses, bang bang

I used to shoot you down.
Eskiden seni vururdum

Music played, and people sang
Müzik çaldı ve inanlar şarkı söyledi

Just for me, the church bells rang.
Sadece benim için, kilisenin çanları inledi

Now he’s gone, I don’t know why
Şimdi o gitti, bilmiyorum neden

And till this day, sometimes I cry
Ve bugün bile, ağlıyorum bazen

He didn’t even say goodbye
Hoşça kal bile demedi

He didn’t take the time to lie.
Yalan söylemek için bile beklemedi

Bang bang

He shot me down, bang bang
O beni vurdu, bang bang

I hit the ground, bang bang
Ben yere düştüm, bang bang

That awful sound, bang bang
O korkunç ses, bang bang

My baby shot me down.
Bebeğim beni vurdu


Leyla saw her reflection in the shop window.
She’s gone to the shops to get some milk.
I need to go to the shops – I’ve got no food in the house.
Most of the shops are open on Sundays.


Her hair is much shorter than it used to be.
It’s only a short walk to the station.
I’m fairly short but my brother’s very tall.
It’s not fashionable to wear short skirts at the moment.


I rested my head on her shoulder.
Then she put her arm around my shoulder and gave me a kiss.
She glanced nervously over her shoulder to make sure no one else was listening.

He was about six feet tall with broad shoulders.
“I don’t know what to do about it,” said Martha, shrugging her shoulders.

shout  /şaut/

There’s no need to shout, I can hear you.
Dad really shouted at me when I broke the window.

show off :  hava atmak

She only bought that sports car to show off and prove she could afford one.
She raised her wrist, showing off a sparkling diamond bracelet.

show up: appear

(to arrive somewhere in order to join a group of people, especially late or unexpectedly:)
We were expecting thirty people to come, but half of them never showed up.

shut  /şat/ : close

Shut the fuck up!
Please shut the gate.

I’ve got a surprise for you! Shut your eyes tightly and hold out your hand.
Mary shut her book and put it down on the table.
This window won’t shut – it’s jammed.

shy : timid

She was too shy to ask her to dance with him.
Children are often shy of/with people they don’t know.


If your sight is poor, you should not drive a car.
The old woman has lost her sight (= has become blind).
She lost her sight after a car accident.
The question seemed easy at first sight (= when they first saw it), but when the students tried to answer it, they discovered how difficult it was.


Don’t ignore the fog warning signs.
Crying is seen as a sign of weakness.
There are signs that the situation is improving.
If she can move her legs, that’s a good sign.

a road sign

Please sign your name below if you are available to help.
Sign here please.


I need your signature on the credit card receipt.
We collected hundreds of signatures on our petition.
We will send you a copy of the agreement for signature.


There has been a significant increase in the number of women students in recent years.
A shrimp-based meal is also a significant source of cholesterol.


The four men sat in complete silence.
After two years of silence, he suddenly got in touch with us again.
There was silence in the library for several moments.
The soldiers listened in silence as their captain gave the orders.

silent : mute

It was four o’clock in the morning and London was as silent as the grave ( completely silent).
The crowd fell silent (=became silent) when the president appeared.
Alice was laughing and joking, but her sister remained silent.

I made a silly mistake in the examination.
I feel silly in this dress.

Cleaning the silver (= silver objects) is a dirty job.
Great Britain won (a) silver/a silver medal in the javelin.
They are mining for silver in the area.

My father and I have similar views on politics.
I bought some new shoes which are very similar to a pair I had before.
Paul is very similar in appearance to his brother.
They both went to Ivy League schools and have similar backgrounds.
He used similar tactics to win the last election.


He wanted to confess his sins before he died.
I think it’s a sin to hit children.
I think it’s a sin (= is morally wrong) to waste food, when so many people in the world are hungry.


Dancing was believed to be sinful.
They believe that humans are sinful by nature.


The children will first sing individually and then together as a group.
And then he started to sing. Well, I didn’t know where to put myself.
He started to sing professionally after leaving college.


You haven’t been listening to a single word I’ve been saying.
She insisted on telling me every single detail of what they did to her in hospital.
He’s been single for so long now, I don’t think he’ll ever marry.


The word “woman” is singular.
The singular of ‘mice’ is ‘mouse’.
The singular of “children” is “child”.
The word “teeth” is plural – in the singular it’s “tooth”.


Mother was sitting in her chair in the kitchen.
They sat there in shock and disbelief.
They had been sitting watching television.
He was unable to sit still for longer than a few minutes.
The document is sitting on his desk.


What size is that shirt?
The price will depend on the size and quality of the carpet.
Your desk is exactly the same size as mine.

skeleton /sikelıtın/

We found an old sheep skeleton up on the cliffs.
We went to see the dinosaur skeletons in the Natural History Museum.
They found a human skeleton under the building’s foundations.
He was so thin that you could see his skeleton through his skin.


Shall we go skiing?
He skied down the hill.


My job doesn’t allow me to fully use my skills.
Reading and writing are two different skills.
Many jobs today require computer skills.
He didn’t have the right skills for the job.
She needs to develop her management skills.


She had thick black hair and smooth dark skin.
The skin on his hands was dry and rough.
I have fair skin that burns very easily.
Vitamin E helps keep your skin healthy.


She looked good in a skirt and blouse.
She wore a white blouse and a plain black skirt.


We could see hundreds of stars in the clear desert sky.
The sky was a perfect blue – not a cloud in sight.
The sun climbed higher in the sky.


Burj Dubai, skyscraper in Dubai and the tallest man-made structure ever built, at 828 m. officially openened 2010.


Black slaves used to work on the cotton plantations of the southern United States.
I’m tired of being treated like a slave!


Slavery still exists in many parts of the world.
Millions of Africans were sold into slavery.


He fell into a deep sleep.
You’ll feel better after a good night’s sleep.
Get a good night’s sleep and you’ll feel better able to cope.
I must get some sleep – I’m exhausted.


She slipped on the ice.
Careful you don’t slip – there’s water on the floor.


Richard took off his slippers and put on his black shoes again, and they went out.
He put on his bathrobe and slippers.


I have a very slippery marble floor which is dangerous to walk on.
The sidewalks were slippery with ice.

smart : genius : clever

He’s smart enough to know he can’t run the business without her.


That cake smells good.
You smell lovely – what’s your perfume?
Come and smell these flowers!
There’s a delicious smell in here.
Dogs have a very good sense of smell.


In my experience, people generally smile back if you smile at them.
She gave everyone a welcoming smile.
Amy had a big/broad smile on her face.

Where there’s smoke, there’s fire.

Do you mind if I smoke?
I used to smoke a packet of cigarettes a day.

He’s terrified of being bitten by a snake.
a snake bite


Is it okay to blow your nose in public?
Of course as long as you’re not sneezing on someone else…


Sometimes my husband snores so loudly, it keeps me awake at night.
Do you know any cures for snoring?


The snow came down during the night.
By morning there was a light covering of snow.
Many villages have been cut off by the heavy snow.
Outside the snow began to fall.
Let’s go and play in the snow!

rain: yağmurun yağması
snow: karın yağması
sleet: sulu sepken yağması
hail: dolunun yağması


The house is so beautiful.
Thank you for being so patient.
Don’t be so stupid!
I’m so tired (that) I could sleep in this chair!
“I’ve got an enormous amount of work to do.” “So have I.”
“I hope they stay together.” “I hope so too.”
“Do you think he’s upset?” “I don’t think so.”
“Is it true that we’re not getting a pay increase this year?” “I’m afraid so.”

and for that reason; therefore:

My knee started hurting so I stopped running.
I was lost so I bought a street map.


Put on your shoes and socks.

The little boy was wearing odd / mismatched socks (= socks of different colours).


“How are you getting on with your new boss?”

so far  

I have answered 100 questions so far. (Şimdiye kadar 100 soru cevapladım.)
I think he’s done a great job so far.

Solar System

Beyond the limits of the solar system, we can only watch from a distance.
Launched within weeks of each other in 1977, each Voyager has been traveling in a different direction through the solar system at approximately 500 million kilometers per year.
They brought us the first pictures of Saturn and Neptune and are now reaching the limits of the solar system.


The best solution would be for them to separate.
There are no simple solutions to the problem of overpopulation.
Locking people in prison is not necessarily the ideal solution.
The only solution is to greatly reduce our use of water.


Charlie thinks money will solve all his problems.
More than 70% of murder cases were solved last year.
Congress had not been able to solve the financial crisis.
Police have called for witnesses to help them solve the murder.


We have two sons and three daughters.
Your son is the same age as mine.
You must be very proud of your son.


Much to my surprise Ben suddenly burst into song.
He’s written a lot of their best-selling songs.

burst into song/tears/laughter: to suddenly begin to sing/cry/laugh:

Much to my surprise, Caleb suddenly burst into song.

sooner or later

Sooner or later she’s going to realize what a mistake she’s made.

sore : painful

After cycling for the whole day, my backside was very sore.

sore throat

You can have a sore throat for many reasons.
She has a sore throat.

soap  / soup /

There was no soap, so I just rinsed my hands with water.

soup / suup /

Would you like a bowl of soup?
Hot soup is very comforting on a cold winter’s day.


She cleared her throat nervously before she began to speak.
Can I speak to you confidentially?
He speaks fluent French.
How many foreign languages do you speak?

Speak of the devil…

used when an absent person who has been the subject of conversation appears.


People who suffer a stroke may experience a loss of speech.
Freedom of speech and freedom of thought were both denied under the dictatorship.
As a child, she had some speech problems.
I had to give/make a speech at my brother’s wedding.

Barack Obama gave a speech at the University of Illinois in which he laid out a harsh critique of Donald Trump and the Republican Party

Could you spell your name again, please?
Some words are more difficult to spell than others.


She spends a lot of money on clothes.
I spent a lot of time cleaning that room.


Stir the mixture with a wooden spoon.
Lying on the table are two spoons: one is metal, the other is plastic.


It was a cold, sunny day in early spring.
She’s coming to visit us in the spring.
They moved here last spring.

The children have jumped on the couch so much that they’ve ruined the springs.


They used the photographs to blackmail her into spying for them.


The spider preys on small flies and other insects.
A spider landed on her pillow and she screamed.


I’ve never ever saw so many squirrels in one day.


After several part-time jobs, he’s now got a stable job in a bank.
The hospital said she was in a stable condition (= not likely to get worse) following the operation.
The economy is fairly stable.

a building in which horses or cattle are kept:

The horses in the stable have plenty of straw.


Go up the stairs and her office is on the right.
She was standing at the top of the stairs.
I heard footsteps coming up the stair.

stamp: damga vurmak veya pul

It is necessary to stamp your passport.
I stuck a 50 cent stamp on the envelope.


Don’t stand out there in the cold – come in here and get warm.
I can’t stand her voice.
She was standing beside my bed staring down at me.
They told me to stand still and not to turn round.


The stars twinkled in the clear sky.
We could see hundreds of stars in the clear desert sky.

Steven Spielberg directed ”Catch Me If You Can” which stars Leonardo DiCaprio and Tom Hanks in 2002.

start : begin 

When do you start your course/your new job?
We’ll be starting (the session) at six o’clock.
Police believe the fire was started by arsonists.
There’s so much to do I don’t know where to start.


to look for a long time with the eyes wide open, especially when surprised, frightened, or thinking:

Don’t stare at people like that, it’s rude.

Stare at the middle of this for 30 seconds………

They need an assistant who is willing to stay for six months.
Stay until the rain has stopped.
Can you stay after work to play tennis?
I stayed in Montreal for two weeks then flew home.
They said they’d stay at/in a hotel.
My kids usually stay with their grandparents for a week in the summer.
Because of the snow, children were told to stay at home.

stay calm/reduce stress

Do you know the ways to Stay Calm and Reduce Stress?


She gonna steal your heart away and there is nothing you can do.


Guitar strings nowadays are made from steel or nylon.
The gates were locked with a padlock and a heavy steel chain.


Be careful not to step in the mud.
Ow, you stepped on my foot!
What’s the next step in the process?

We must stay one step ahead of our competitors.
Don’t worry – I’ll go through the procedure with you step by step.
Mind the step as you leave the train.

stepmother / stepfather

the woman who is married to someone’s father but who is not their real mother

the man who is married to someone’s mother but who is not their real father

stepping stone

I see this job just as a stepping stone to better things.
I hope this job will be a stepping stone to something better.


Police said that the child had been beaten with a stick.
Find some dry sticks and we’ll make a campfire.

I tried to stick the pieces together with some glue/tape.
I could feel my shirt sticking to my back.
Someone had stuck posters all over the walls.
This stamp won’t stick properly.

If you make a promise, you should stick to it.


I’m still hungry.
There’s still time for us to get to the cinema before the film starts.
I still haven’t finished writing my essay.
Children find it difficult to sit/stand/stay still for very long.
The universe is still expanding.


The doctor asked him to lie down on his stomach.
She has a very delicate stomach and doesn’t eat spicy food.
I was hungry and my stomach had started growling/rumbling (= making noises).
You shouldn’t go to work on an empty stomach.

The sight of Joe eating raw fish is enough to turn your stomach.
Just the smell makes my stomach turn.
The amount of money she spends on designer clothes really turns my stomach.


A stone hit the window and cracked the glass.
The museum was made of stone.


The weather forecast is for severe storms tonight.
Twenty people were killed when the storm struck the Midwest.
We sat and waited for the storm to pass.
A lot of buildings suffered storm damage.


Will you read/tell me a story, daddy?
We don’t know the full details of the story yet.
Don’t tell me any stories – I want to know what really happened.
The film was based on a true story.


We picked lots of strawberries, but we’d eaten half the basket by the time we got home.
I thought we’d have strawberries and cream for dessert.


Our daughter lives just across the street from us.
Diane’s house is in/on Cherry Street.
Men whistle at us when we’re just walking down the street.


She fell heavily, striking her head against the side of the boat.
The autopsy revealed that his murderer had struck him on the head with an iron bar.

We’re striking for better pay and improved safety standards.
In many countries, the police are forbidden to strike.
An estimated 70,000 public sector workers went on strike.
Teachers are on strike again this week.

It suddenly struck me that I hadn’t spoken to Debbie in months.
But it strikes me that this is really the view of people who don’t have them.
Look, come and make yourself useful, because it strikes me that this is the day, and the hour practically.


She couldn’t study with the children chasing around the house.
One of the main reasons I came to England was to study the language.
You’ll need peace and quiet to study.
Richard studied engineering at Manchester University.
I studied music at college.


She was really stupid to quit her job like that.
Whose stupid idea was it to travel at night?
He now thinks that retiring early was a stupid thing to do.
Don’t be so stupid.
I just made another stupid mistake.


The submarine surfaced a few miles off the coast.
The submarine dived just in time to avoid the enemy attack.
The president has agreed to allocate further funds to develop the new submarine.


We looked on our map to find the nearest subway station.
I take the subway to work.
I left my bag on the subway.
I don’t like to travel on the subway after dark.

succeed : achieve

She’s been trying to pass her driving test for six years and she’s finally succeeded.
There is no reason why we shouldn’t succeed.


The key to success is to be in the right place at the right time.
The success of almost any project depends largely on its manager.


He was a successful businessman before becoming a writer.
Our soldiers carried out a successful attack last night.
Fortunately, my second attempt at starting a business was more successful than my first.


Drop the gun, put your hands in the air, and don’t make any sudden movements.
He had a sudden heart attack while he was on holiday.
I’d strongly advise against making a sudden decision.


I suddenly realized what I’d said, but it was too late.
Rosie suddenly grasped my hand.
I was woken up suddenly by the sound of someone hammering on the front door.
He suddenly appeared in the doorway.


She’s been suffering from cancer for two years.
Well, if you insist on eating so much, you’ll have to suffer/take the consequences!
I think she suffered a lot when his husband was arrested.


I don’t take sugar in my coffee, thanks.
Do you take sugar in your coffee?
How many sugars do you want in your tea


I suggested an Italian restaurant near the station for the party.
Might I suggest a white wine with your salmon, sir?
I suggest (that) we wait a while before we make any firm decisions.


The judge reacted angrily to the suggestion that it hadn’t been a fair trial.
I don’t know what to wear tonight – have you got any suggestions?


homicide: başkasını öldürmek
suicide: kendini öldürmek (intihar)
genocide: soykırım

murder: kill : homicide
die: ölmek
dead : ölü

Belarus, Lithuania, Russian and Belgium have the world’s highest suicide rates in the World.
When the scandal broke , the company director committed suicide.
The suicide rate among men between the ages of 16 and 25 has risen alarmingly.
Many suicides occur in prisons.


We have breakfast on the balcony in (the) summer.
Last summer they went to Australia, and two summers ago they went to Brazil.
That year it was a hot, dry summer.


I’ll just summarize the main points of the argument in a few words if I may.


At the end of the news, they often give you a summary of the main news stories.
CiteSpace can generate a summary report at the end of a session to summarize the key information about the literature you just analyzed.


The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
The sun’s rays are at their most powerful at midday.

sunflower seeds

She has never eaten sunflower seeds before because she has been so afraid to try something new…
Sunflower seeds also contain dozens of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals that are necessary for a variety of physiological processes.


We sat on the beach watching a spectacular sunset.
We take the flag down at sunset.


The military government is trying to stop the supply of guns to the rebels.
There was a plentiful supply of books and magazines to read.
Electrical power is supplied by underground cables.
Three people have been arrested for supplying arms to the terrorists.


You’ve been a great support to my mum in this difficult time.
The majority of people in the town strongly support the plans to build a new school.


Dan didn’t answer his phone, so I suppose (that) he’s busy.
Do you suppose (that) Gillian will marry him?
It is widely supposed (that) the CEO will be forced to resign.
Her new book is supposed to be (= generally people think it is) very good.

used to show unwillingness to agree:

“Can I go out tonight?” “Oh, I suppose so.”

used at the beginning of a sentence or clause to mean ‘what would happen if’:

Suppose we miss the train – what will we do then?

supposed to

You’re not supposed to park here.
The children are supposed to be at school by 8.45 a.m.


According to superstition, if you walk under a ladder it brings you bad luck.
I don’t believe in the old superstition that the number 13 is unlucky.

Do Superstitions Have Any Actual Scientific Basis Behind Them?
supreme /sıprim/ yüce

The country’s present constitution gives supreme authority to the presidency.
He was supreme commander of the Allied troops.
The dictionary was called the supreme authority on all matters relating to the language.


How are you? Oh, (I’m) surviving.
The baby was born with a heart problem and only survived for a few hours.
These plants cannot survive in very cold conditions.


She was the only survivor of the plane crash.
She’s a cancer survivor/a survivor of cancer.


I suspected that there was something wrong with the engine.
He’s suspected of murder.
No one knows who killed her, but the police suspect her husband.


I can’t say for definite who did it, but I certainly have my suspicions.
She was arrested on suspicion of murder.
I have a suspicion that the local authority may be planning to close the school.
He felt he was still under suspicion.


Turkey sustained its outstanding efforts to provide massive and unprecedented humanitarian aid and support to more than 3.5 million refugees from Syria and some 365 000 refugees from other countries.


A large international meeting was held with the aim of promoting sustainable development in all countries.


The fundamental issue for Canada is the sustainability of American economic growth.
A plastic bag, environmentalists say, is made from petroleum products and, therefore, is an unfriendly choice for environmental sustainability.


You are asked to swallow a capsule containing vitamin B.
Polly took a bite of the apple, chewed and swallowed.
One swallow doesn’t make a summer.


By the time we’d climbed to the top of the hill, we were covered in sweat.
The sweat was pouring down her face by the end of the race.
It was so hot when we arrived in Diyarbakır that we started to sweat as soon as we got off the plane.


She swept the ashes from the fireplace.
When I arrived he was sweeping the leaves from the driveway.


They live in a sweet little house.
What a sweet baby!
The pineapple was sweet.
Sweet Dreams

Moon, clouds and stars. Sweet dreams wallpaper.

We spent the day on the beach but it was too cold to go swimming.
I used to swim twice a week, but I seem to have got out of the habit recently.
Who was the first person to swim the English Channel?
We swam in the chilly water.

swimming pool

The hotel has its own swimming pool.
You get free use of all the hotel’s facilities such as swimming pool and sauna.


He was swinging his bag back and forth.
Her earrings were swinging as she nodded her head.
Parents and children playing on the swings in the park.
Her mother was pushing her daughters on swings.


Japanese swords are famous because they are very sharp and strong.
Samurai warriors used swords.


Could you set the table for lunch, please?
They sat round the dinner table, arguing about politics.
Come to the table everybody – supper’s ready.
We ate our meals sitting around a large dining room table.

tackle /takıl/ : deal with

to try to deal with something or someone:

There are many ways of tackling this problem.
I tackled him about his careless work.
The president is clearly in a dilemma about how to tackle the crisis.
There is a great deal of indecision over how to tackle the problem.


The dog wagged its tail excitedly.

wag: (especially of a tail or finger) to move from side to side or up and down, especially quickly and repeatedly, or to cause this to happen:

Küçük Cesur Terzi

A tailor is a person whose job is to make men’s clothes.

take a shortcut 

She just had to go and take a shortcut through the woods…


Here’s your pen – I took it by mistake.
When they got divorced, his wife took everything.
They took blood and urine specimens for analysis.
Do they take credit cards here?
We’re taking the kids to the zoo on Saturday.
I always take the train – it’s less hassle than a car.

take care

Take care! See you next week!
Take care when driving in icy conditions.
Don’t worry about me, I can take care of myself (= I do not need anyone else to protect me).

take it easy

You’d better take it easy until you feel better.
Take it easy – don’t get mad.

take off

He sat on the bed to take his boots off.
Charlie was taking off his shirt when the phone rang.

I felt quite excited as the plane took off from Heathrow.
The plane took off at 8.30 a.m.


She’s a lively, talkative person.
He’s very talkative with his friends and family.
Benjamin was in a talkative mood.


My view was blocked by a tall man in front of me.
She’s nearly as tall as her father now.
The house was surrounded by a tall, wooden fence.

tasty nasty

This soup is very tasty.


Temporary Duty


He already pays 40% tax on his income.
Many people feel they are paying too much tax.
There’s no point promising to cut taxes if you can’t afford it.
We have to pay 15% sales tax on everything we buy.


How do you like your tea – strong or weak?
Could I have two cups of coffee and a tea, please?

tea bag

Can you give me a tea bag please?

This course qualifies you to teach in any secondary school.
We need to ensure that handwriting is properly taught in our primary schools.
My father taught me how to drive.

The teacher drew a diagram showing how the blood flows through the heart.
It takes a lot of enthusiasm and a love of children to make a good teacher.
Dominique’s teacher says that she interacts well with the other children.
My son’s never been in trouble with his teachers before.
There is a shortage of teachers, especially in music and science.


You have to be very careful with books this old because the paper tears very easily.
I tore off a piece of paper.

Did you notice the tears in his eyes when he talked about Diane?
I won’t shed (any) tears (= I will not be unhappy) when he goes, I can tell you!
I found him in tears in his bedroom.

teddy bear

A teddy bear is a children’s toy, made from soft or furry material, which looks like a friendly bear.

tedious = boring

something that is tedious continues for a long time and is not interesting

The work was tiring and tedious.
Doing all those calculations without a computer would be extremely tedious.


Are you looking for a temporary or a permanent job?
She is looking for a permanent place to stay.


He thanked me for taking him home.
On behalf of the entire company, I would like to thank you for all your work.
We thanked our hosts for the lovely evening.
Finally, I’d like to thank everyone for coming this evening.


for that reason:

We were unable to get funding and therefore had to abandon the project.
The children will be walking to the cathedral and therefore will need to wear suitable footwear and a sun hat or raincoat, depending on the weather.
She already had a lot of experience and therefore seemed the best candidate for the job.
I did not study hard. Therefore, I failed.
It was late, so I didn’t stay long.

In everyday English, people usually use so rather than therefore:

theft : hırsızlık

(the act of) dishonestly taking something that belongs to someone else and keeping it:

Unfortunately, we have had several thefts in the building recently.


A post office was broken into last night, and the thieves got away with €120 000.
The thief grabbed her handbag and ran off down the street.


Who do you think you are?
I think (that) I’ve met you before.
I don’t think Emma will get the job.
“Do you think (that) you could get me some stamps while you’re in town?”
I’m thinking about buying a new car.

think aloud

What did you say? “Oh, nothing, I was just thinking aloud.”

think tank

an organization whose work is to study specific problems and suggest solutions, often with a particular political view.


The plants here have thorns on their branches.
These thorns protect the plant’s very small green leaves.


She hasn’t called, even though she said she would.
I enjoyed her new book though it’s not quite as good as her last one.
Though she was no more than twenty-two, she was already a highly successful businesswoman.
We went to high school together. I haven’t seen her for years, though.
Two heart attacks in a year.It hasn’t stopped him smoking, though.


Ask me again tomorrow. I’ll have to give it some thought.
She doesn’t give any thought to her appearance.
Let me have your thoughts on that report by Friday.


Her parents carried out their threat to take away her mobile phone if her grades didn’t improve.
It is hoped that the kidnappers will not carry out their threat to kill the hostages.
Drunken drivers pose a serious threat (= cause a lot of harm) to other road users.
Nuclear weapons pose a threat to everyone.
He says he’ll tell the authorities but it’s just an empty threat (= it will not happen).
The police have to take any terrorist threat seriously.


They threatened to kill him unless he did as they asked.
They threatened the shopkeeper with a gun.

throw |  threw | thrown

He threw his shirt to someone in the crowd.
Someone threw a stone at the car.
Don’t just throw your clothes on the floor – pick them up!
Protestors began throwing stones at the police.


as a result of something that you have just mentioned
Most of the evidence was destroyed in the fire. Thus it would be almost impossible to prove him guilty.


How much are tickets for the concert?
I’d like two tickets to İstanbul.
You can pick up your airline tickets at the check-in desk.
There was a long queue at the ticket office.


They tied him to a tree and beat him up.
I tie my hair back when I’m jogging.
Can you tie your shoelaces by yourself?
Do you know how to tie a bow tie?
I wear a shirt and tie at work.


We saw several tigers in the wild.
The zoo has a large collection of tigers.


I want to spend more time with my family.
I only worked there for a short period of time.
I wish you’d stop criticizing me all the time.
I don’t know how you find time to do all the things you do.
We don’t have much time before the train leaves.
Do you have time for a quick drink after work?


We don’t need to leave a tip for the waiter, because there’s a service charge included in the bill.
She gave me a useful/helpful/valuable/practical tip about/for growing tomatoes.


The title of Evelyn Waugh’s first novel was “Decline and Fall”.
The author’s name was printed below the title.
There was a book I wanted to buy, but now I can’t remember the title.

tobacco /tıbako/

We cannot sell tobacco or alcohol to anyone under 16.
I expect the tax on alcohol and tobacco will go up again.

tomato /tomeydo/

Tomato is a round, red fruit with a lot of seeds, eaten cooked or uncooked as a vegetable, for example in salads or sauces.
Tomatoes are fruits that are considered vegetables by nutritionists.


I called her new boyfriend by her previous boyfriend’s name – it was just a slip of the tongue.

Her name is on the tip of my tongue.

tongue twister

”’She sells seashells on the seashore” is a well-known tongue twister.

tooth (plural teeth)

She has a small gap between her front teeth.
He’s gone to the dentist to have a tooth out.
I brush my teeth twice a day.
Some of his front teeth were missing.
Brushing regularly helps prevent tooth decay.


Do not share razors and toothbrushes.
Then I brushed my teeth thoroughly with my electric toothbrush.


There is no toothpaste in these tubes.
He needed some toothpaste so he went into the chemists.
He was often unable to make simple, rapid decisions about what toothpaste to buy or what to wear.


A desert tortoise would not survive in a rainforest habitat.
A tortoise has a shell on its back.
Although most tortoises do not eat meat, their bodies do provide meat for others.
Baby tortoises especially are a favorite food for many other species.


That paint is wet – don’t touch it.
Please don’t touch any of my stuff while I’m away.
He fell asleep as soon as his head touched the pillow.

get/keep/stay in touch (with sb)
We need to get in touch with our suppliers right away.
Let’s keep in touch over the next few days while the installation is in progress.


She came downstairs after her shower, wrapped in a towel.


the Eiffel tower
There’s a clock on the church tower.
He works in an office tower in downtown San Francisco.


Put your toys away now – it’s time for bed.
Leave daddy’s camera alone – it isn’t a toy!


Fireworks have long been an American tradition on the Fourth of July.
There’s a tradition in our office that when it’s somebody’s birthday, they bring in a cake for all of us to share.
This tradition dates back to medieval times.
According to family tradition, he must sing at his own wedding.


It is traditional not to eat meat on Good Friday.
A group of children will perform traditional dances.
The school uses a combination of modern and traditional methods for teaching reading.
The dancers were wearing traditional Hungarian dress/costume.


Did you come by train?
She caught/took the train to Edinburgh.
Hurry up, or we’ll miss (= arrive too late for) the train.

She trained as a pilot.
John trained to be an accountant.
I had to train myself to be more assertive at work.


New staff have/receive a week’s training in how to use the system.
Both soldiers spent two weeks in training before being allowed to rejoin their unit.
His experience as a teacher was good training for parenthood.


We were asked to translate a list of sentences.
She works for the UN, translating from English into French.
Her novels have been translated into sixteen languages.
It can be very difficult to translate idioms.


He works as a translator and political researcher.
She worked in Geneva as a translator.

trash : rubbish

The trash really stinks – why don’t you take it out?
Don’t believe the trash you read in newspapers.


My parents treated us all the same when we were kids.
He treated his wife very badly.

A: “Don’t worry about the check, it’s my treat.”

B: “Really, you shouldn’t. Let’s just split it.”

A: “Well ok, if you insist. Let’s each pay half.”

“It’s on me” is like you are doing a favor for the other person.

“It’s my treat” is like you are giving a gift to the other person.

“I got this” is like you are saying that the amount is small and  no problem for you.

This is my treat. Put your money away – I’m going to treat you (to this).


Peter gets special treatment because he knows the boss.
Perhaps it’s time to try a new course of treatment.
This disease doesn’t generally respond to (= improve as a result of) treatment.

treaty /tiridi/

European leaders were preparing to agree a new treaty to save the eurozone last night.


A fallen tree is blocking the road.
The birds built their nest in the small fir tree.

The air was so still that not even the leaves on the trees were moving.
These trees will have to be cut down to make way for the new road.
A young boy climbed into the apple tree and shook the branches so that the fruit fell down.
We sat under a tree for shade.


My niece was showing me all the tricks that she’s learned to do with her new magic set.
You can’t teach an old dog new tricks.


He’s in trouble but he’s refused all my offers of help.
May I trouble you to read this document?
The trouble started/began when my father came to live with us.
Parents often have trouble finding good carers for their children.

true : right 

The movie is based on the true story of a London gangster.
Her story is only partly true.
Is it true?


Don’t trust her – she’s lying.
My sister warned me not to trust him.
Trust me – I know about these things.

trustworthy: reliable

A trustworthy person is someone in whom you can place our trust at all times.

In this job we need someone who is entirely honest and trustworthy.

truth : fact

But was he telling the truth?
I don’t suppose we’ll ever know the truth about what happened that day.
The truth about the accident may never be known.

To tell the truth (= speaking honestly) I’m happy he’s not coming.

Keep trying and you’ll find a job eventually.
If I don’t get into the academy this year, I’ll try again next year.
I’ve tried really hard but I can’t convince him to come.
I’m trying my best/hardest, but I just can’t do it.
I tried to open the window.

Large tulip bulbs are more likely to flower year after year while the smaller size flower once and die.

Tulip Garden

Turkey is a country which is mainly in west Asia but partly in southeast Europe, between the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Population: 80,694,485 (2014). Capital: Ankara. Until the early 20th century, Turkey was the centre of the large Ottoman Empire, whose capital city was Istanbul, Turkey’s largest city. It became a republic in 1923, and its first president was Kemal Ataturk, who made great changes to make Turkey a more modern country. Turkey is a member of NATO and has asked to become a member of the EU.


What type of clothes does she wear?
It was dark so I didn’t notice what type of car it was.
He’s a nice enough guy – he’s just not my type.

She asked me to type a couple of letters.
He can type very quickly.


Ricky turned and walked away.
I watched until he turned the corner.
Turn left at the church or at the traffic lights.

turn down -REFUSE

to refuse to accept or agree to something, or to refuse someone’s request:

The bank turned her down for a loan.
The former Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman has turned down the job.

He offered her a trip to Australia but she turned it/him down.

turn over a new leaf /lif/

Stephen said he has turned over a new leaf, and that he’s going to quit smoking and start to exercise every day.


A sea turtle lays eggs at night.
But this work does not protect the turtles from their worst enemy.
Each turtle makes a nest by digging a hole in the sand.
Man is the greatest threat to sea turtles.


My twin sister and I have got the same nose.
The youngest boys are so close in age they look like twins.
To avoid confusion, the twins never wore the same clothes.

tyre : tire

I’ve got a flat tyre (= the air has gone out of it).
He was driving along the motorway when his tyre burst.
I keep a spare tyre in the back of the car.


She is meant to be ugly in the drama, but I think she looks cute.
I felt that she gradually becomes cuter and cuter.


I felt a few drops of rain, so I put my umbrella up.
I left my umbrella on the bus last week.


You should see her wardrobe – it’s unbelievable – she’s got about fifty pairs of shoes!


She explained the whole idea again, but I still didn’t understand.
Is there anyone here who understands Arabic?
I think he was calling from a club – it was so noisy, I couldn’t understand a word he said.
My wife doesn’t understand me.
He explained it as simply as he could, but the class still didn’t understand.
I don’t understand what he means.


Unfortunately, by the time we got there the party was almost over.
Unfortunately, I didn’t have my credit card with me, or else I would have bought it.

unheard-of –duyulmamış

It was unheard-of for an unmarried couple to live together.

This’s unfair!

It’s unfair to blame me all the time.


You can’t get a job unless you have experience (= you can only get a job if you have experience).
They threatened to kill him unless he did as they asked.


The system can support an unlimited number of users.
The ticket offers unlimited travel on the London underground for seven days.

until : till

You’ll have to wait until your next birthday for a new bike.
The ticket is valid until April.
He waited until she had finished speaking.
In everyday English, people often saytill” rather than until:
I’ll wait till you get back.


We’ll update you on this news story throughout the day.
My website (www.newworldai.com) is updated daily.
She spent several hours updating the mailing list.
I haven’t updated the software in three years.


I don’t like upsetting people.
Don’t upset yourself by thinking about what might have been.
I hadn’t realized I’d upset him but apparently he was mortally offended.

Don’t get upset about the dress – there’s only a little stain on it.
She was very upset to hear that the party had been cancelled.
He was very upset that you didn’t reply to his emails.

up to now

She has done great work up to now. I think she will be promoted soon. …

used to 


Women usually live longer than men.
Usually I wear black, grey, or brown.
He usually gets home about six o’clock.
I usually just have a sandwich for lunch.


This booklet provides useful information about local services.
She gave me some useful advice.
Their website has some useful tips on selling your home.
Did you find the book useful?

Opposite useful and useless vector illustration

She’s very good at methodical work, but useless when there’s a lot of pressure.
The land is useless for growing crops.
It was useless to complain.
The treatment is completely useless.

valid ≠  invalid

The International Organization for Migration is seeking qualified Turkish nationals and non-Turkish nationals holding a valid residence permit for the following position based in Ankara, Turkey.


Thank you for giving me your valuable time.
These antiques are extremely valuable.


to disappear or stop being present or existing, especially in a sudden, surprising way:

The child vanished while on her way home from school.
We ran out after the thief, but he had vanished into thin air (= had completely disappeared).
Imagine if one day Jennifer Lawrence was walking the red carpet in Los Angeles and the next she vanished completely with no word about where she was.


We had various problems on our journey, including a flat tyre.
The author gave various reasons for having written the book.


The potato is the most popular vegetable in this country.
Raw vegetables contain more potassium than cooked ones.


A truck driver died last night when his vehicle overturned.
Road vehicles include cars, buses, and trucks.
Tractors are farm vehicles.
The number of thefts of motor vehicles rose by a third last year.


the vice-captain of the cricket team
Vice President Biden


The new drug might help save the lives of cancer victims.
We appear to have been the victims of a cruel practical joke.
Our local hospital has become the latest victim of the cuts in government spending.


The Redskins opened the season by scoring a resounding/stunning/impressive 25–3 victory against/over Detroit.
Grant won/achieved/gained a comfortable/easy victory against/over Cooper in yesterday’s match.
This result is a triumphant victory for democracy.


It’s a little fishing village with very narrow streets.
Our farm is a few miles north of the village.
The village has remained basically unchanged for over 300 years.
Many villages have been cut off by the heavy snow.
Because I live in a remote village, I regard my car as an essential.


By the age of four o a child will have a vocabulary of about five hundred words.
Every week our French teacher gives us a list of vocabulary (= words) to learn.
The Chinese language is rich in vocabulary.


He recognized her loud and clear voice instantly.
Sophie’s got a lovely singing voice.
When he spoke, his voice was soft and gentle.
Keep your voice down, they’ll hear you!


When a company is in crisis like this, the vultures are always hovering.

wage : salary

Comparing the average wages of workers and managers is like trying to compare apples and oranges.
He earns a good wage.
The wage increases will come into effect in June.

wait/stand in line/queue

I had to wait/stand in line/ queue for three hours to get tickets.
Just get in line and wait your turn like everyone else..


I waited for her outside while she went in to see the doctor.
The dentist kept me waiting for ages.
There were a lot of people waiting to use the phone.
The paperwork can’t wait until tomorrow (= is urgent and must be done now).


The waiter smiled politely as he handed me my bill/handed my bill to me.
A waiter hovered at the table, ready to take our order.


Please wake me early tomorrow.
I woke up with a headache.
The noise of the storm woke the kids.

“Why are you in such a bad mood today? Did you get up on the wrong side of the bed?”

“I feel terrible. I definitely got up on the wrong side of the bed today. Actually, maybe it was all the wine I drank last night!”

“You’re annoying everyone at the moment. You’re not going to have any friends left if you keep getting up on the wrong side of the bed!”


I walked home.
A cat was walking along the top of the fence.
He walks two miles to work every morning.


The walls have ears.
The walls in this apartment are so thin you can hear just about every word the neighbours say.
The walls look a bit bare – can’t we put some pictures up?
We had to climb over a ten-foot wall to get into the garden.
The Berlin Wall came down in 1989

wallet : purse

He pulled out a big, fat wallet stuffed with bank notes.
This really isn’t my day – my wallet was stolen this morning and now I’ve lost my car keys.
When he realized he’d lost his wallet, he retraced his footsteps .


I don’t wanna go now.

want : wanna

I want some chocolate.
She wants a meeting with you.
He’s everything you’d ever want in a man – bright, funny and attractive.
What do you want to eat?
Do you want me to take you to the airport?


If this country goes to (= starts to fight in a) war we will have to face the fact that many people will die.
Britain and France declared war on Germany in 1939 as a result of the invasion of Poland.
War broke out between the two countries after a border dispute.
They’ve been at war for the last five years.
He died in the First World War/the Vietnam war.


You should see her wardrobe – it’s unbelievable – she’s got about fifty pairs of shoes


a large building for storing large quantities of goods

The goods have been sitting in a warehouse for months because a strike has prevented distribution.


I put my hands in my pockets to keep them warm.
The room is so warm it’s making me feel drowsy.
He has a lovely warm (friendly) smile.
I’d like to give a warm welcome to our guests this evening.


I was warned against going to the east coast because it was so full of tourists.
I’m warning you one last time.


something that makes you understand there is a possible danger or problem, especially one in the future:

Completely without warning, he turned up at my door with all four children!
There’s a warning on the cigarette packet that says “Cigarettes cause cancer”.
I’m not surprised you feel sick after eating so much – let it be a warning to you!
Just a word of warning – restaurants in this area can be very expensive.


How often do you wash your hair?
He hardly ever washes the dishes and he rarely, if ever, does any cleaning.
This T-shirt has been washed so many times that it’s lost its shape.


That meeting achieved absolutely nothing – it was a complete waste of time.
You waste a lot of water by taking a bath instead of a shower.
Come on, let’s get started – we’ve wasted enough time already.
Don’t waste your money on such junk.


Is there enough hot water for a bath?
The water in Bayındır lake is so clear that you can see the bottom.
I’ve asked my neighbour to water the plants while I’m away.


This tour takes in the area’s best-known natural features, including the Gullfoss waterfall.
“Just look at that waterfall! Isn’t it amazing?” she marvelled.
I couldn’t hear what he was saying over the thunder of the waterfall.


A watermelon has many black seeds.
Many people in Japan eat watermelon in the summer.


At night, I listened to the sound of the waves breaking/crashing against the shore.
We could hear the waves breaking on the shore.
I waved to/at him from the window but he didn’t see me.


I am on my way.
I’m sorry but there’s no way we can help you.
“Come on, let me borrow your bike.” “No way!”


It’s not surprising you feel weak if you haven’t eaten properly for days.


The plan has strengths and weaknesses.
I dared not cry or show any sign of weakness.
Sonia’s biggest weakness is his lack of tolerance.
The plane has some serious structural weaknesses.


The mystery was solved when the police discovered the murder weapon.
Police found a knife at the scene that is believed to be the murder weapon.


What are you wearing to Caroline’s wedding?
Some musicians don’t like to wear rings when they’re playing.
He wears glasses for reading.
She wears very little make-up.


My landlord’s given me a week to clear out of my flat.
I go to aerobics once a week.


This/Next weekend we’re going to see some friends.
I have a lot of homework to do over the weekend.
He spent the weekend fishing with his brother.
Do you have anything planned for the weekend?


I can’t do it as well as Marie can.
The tyres on my car don’t cope very well on wet roads.
He plays the piano well enough (= to a satisfactory standard).
Invite Emily – and Scott as well.
I want to visit Andrew as well as Martin.
I’m sorry you’re ill – I hope you get well soon.

a deep hole in the ground from which water, oil, or gas can be obtained:

an oil well
well water

Well Done!

Well done… Good for you! Great Job!

wet and slippery

The road was wet and slippery.


The communicative ability of the whale is thought to be highly developed.
International measures have been taken to prevent the extermination of the whale .


We drove past fields of ripening wheat.
The new varieties of wheat are good growers even in poor soil.
In the US, winter wheat is harvested in the early summer.


I tried to move forwards but the wheels had locked.


The bride’s hair was adorned with pearls and white flowers.
Factory chimneys belched dense white smoke into the sky.
I like the contrast of the white trousers with the black jacket.
He’s white-haired now.

wide ≠ narrow

His eyes were wide (= opened much more than usual) with surprise.
The swimming pool is five metres wide.
The wardrobe is 2 m high, 1 m wide and 60 cm deep.

widow – dul

There once was a poor widow who had a beautiful daughter.
It’s a bloody disgrace that some war widows don’t get a decent pension.


Just out of interest, how old is your wife?
I met Greg’s wife for the first time.
She’s his third wife (= she is the third woman he has been married to).


In Kenya we saw elephants and lions in the wild.


A new series of wildlife programmes has started on Monday evenings.


A meeting will be held next Tuesday at 3 p.m.
What time will she arrive?

Children sometimes have strong wills.

My grandfather left me some money in his will.


Which year was it that Italy won the World Cup?
Who’s winning?
This is the third medal she’s won this season.
Who won the men’s finals at the Open?
They won the war, although it cost them millions of lives.
If this government win the next election, I’m leaving the country.
Everyone likes winning an argument.


Flexible working hours are a win-win situation for employers and employees.


There isn’t enough wind to fly a kite.
The forecast warned of winds of up to 60 miles an hour today.


It was a windy night.
It was wet and windy for most of the week.


Is it all right if I open/close the window?
He caught me staring out of the window.
I saw a child’s face at the window.
She has some wonderful plants in the window (= on a surface at the bottom of the window).


This wine is delicious.
Most supermarkets stock a wide range of wines.
There’s no point buying him expensive wines – he doesn’t appreciate them.


Someone had cut the phone wires.
Loose electric wires were dangling from the wall.
The prison was surrounded by barbed wire.

Difference between Wire & Cable
Wire and cable are two terms that are used in electrical and communication fields. They are often confused, but in fact, they are quite different.
A wire is a single conductor(material most commonly being copper or aluminium) while cable is two or more insulated wires wrapped in one jacket. Multiple conductors that have no insulation around would be classified as a single conductor.


The library provides free wireless access.


I think you made a wise choice.
Looking at the weather, I think we made a wise decision not to go to the coast this weekend.
a wise man/woman


Wish me Good Luck..
The shop assistant wished me a Merry Christmas.
I wish she’d shut up for a minute and let someone else talk.
I wish (that) I was/were a bit taller.


I always wear these shoes with this dress.
I saw Bob in town with his girlfriend.
You’d better bring your passport with you.
Chop the onions with a sharp knife.

Tree with and without leaves

After the storm we were without electricity for five days.
After the storm we were without electricity for five days.
What do you expect?’ he said, without looking at her.
He had gone out without his parents’ permission.
I accepted his offer without a moment’s hesitation.


Wolves hunt in groups known as packs.
We could hear wolves howling in the distance.
In the silence of the night, a lone wolf howled.
She heard the wind whistling through the trees and the howl of a distant wolf.


He makes tables and other things from different kinds of wood.
He gathered some wood to build a fire.
Touch wood! Knock on wood!


They ate at a long wooden table.
We could hear the clump of his feet on the wooden floor.


After 2004, people hurried to the location where Sparling had seen the woodpecker.


I can’t wear wool – it makes me itch.
Australia is one of the world’s main producers of wool.
If you’ve got any wool to spare when you’ve finished the pullover, can you make me some gloves?

Australia is one of the world’s main producers of wool.

Some words are more difficult to spell than others.
It’s sometimes difficult to find exactly the right word to express what you want to say.
Have you had any word from Nazlı since she went to Istanbul?
Is there any word from him?

Oh My Word!
The word “environment” means different things to different people.
She spoke so fast I couldn’t understand a word (= anything she said).


I’ve got so much work to do.
Carrying heavy loads around all day is hard work.
What time do you start/finish work?
What sort of work are you experienced in?

work out

to exercise in order to improve the strength or appearance of your body:

Huw works out in the gym two or three times a week.
I try to work out twice a week.
Make sure you drink plenty of water if you are working out.

world : earth

Different parts of the world have very different climatic conditions.
News of the disaster shocked the (whole/entire) world.
We live in a changing world and people must learn to adapt.
I felt the world was falling on me.


It’s distressing enough to find a worm in your apple but finding half of one is worse.


What’s troubling you, dear? You look ever so worried.
She was sitting behind her desk with a worried expression/look on her face.


Try not to worry – there’s nothing you can do to change the situation.
Don’t worry, she’ll be all right.
It’s silly worrying about things which are outside your control.
She’s worried (that) she might not be able to find another job.

worst-case scenario

The study concludes that in a worst-case scenario there might be 80,000 cases of the disease.
Worst-case-scenario, it will happen tomorrow. En kötü ihtimalle yarın gerçekleşir.
Worst case scenario, we will finish it tomorrow. En kötü ihtimalle yarın bitiririz.
Worst case scenario, we will go home. En kötü ihtimalle eve gideriz.


Our house is worth £150,000.
Paris is worth a visit.
Thieves broke the shop window and carried off jewellery worth thousands of bucks.
It was worth a try.
There’s nothing worth reading in this newspaper.
I think this matter is worth our attention.


When you fill in the form, please write clearly/legibly in black ink.
“I hope to see you next Saturday,” she wrote.
Why not write (down) your ideas on a piece of paper before you start?


She is a well-known writer of children’s books.
He was a successful businessman before becoming a writer.
He is widely regarded as one of the best writers of our times.

wrong : false 

Don’t talk to the boss today. It looks like she woke up on the wrong side of the bed.
Don’t get me wrong.
What’s wrong with him? I’m not really sure.


to open the mouth wide and take a lot of air into the lungs and slowly send it out, usually when tired or bored:

I can’t stop yawning – I must be tired.


It was early autumn and the leaves were turning yellow.
You should wear more yellow – it suits you.


How did it go yesterday?


His girlfriend’s very young.
The trees in this part of the forest are still fairly young.
Philippa is the youngest person in the family.
Angela is two years younger than Clare.


I was a fairly good football player in my youth.
The first volume is the author’s account of his misspent youth in the bars of Dublin.
He looks like a man who’s found the secret to eternal youth (= staying young).
You may not have played tennis as often as him, but at least you’ve got youth on your side (= you are young).


a situation in which actions, plans, or ideas change suddenly and completely, and then change back again equally suddenly:

The Washington Post complained of “two weeks of policy zigzags”.
The country seems to have been following a zigzag course between democracy and dictatorship.


The zodiac sign would give him a long life and happiness.


The UN Security Council has established a no-fly zone (= one where aircraft are not permitted to fly).
Journalists may enter the danger zone but unfortunately we cannot guarantee their safety.


How about a trip to the zoo this afternoon?
Tea-time in our house is like feeding time at the zoo!
“Did the kids enjoy their trip to the zoo?” “Oh, yes, they were full of it when they got back this afternoon.”
The bad weather really took the gloss off our trip to the zoo.
We could hear the lions roaring at the other end of the zoo.

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