Regular exercise is a good habit.
She has a habit of playing with her hair when she’s nervous.
I was taught to drive by my boyfriend and I’m afraid I’ve picked up (= caught) some of his bad habits.
His cocaine habit ruined him physically and financially.
You had better take your umbrella, or you will get wet.
I had better go otherwise my mother will get angry with me.
to attempt to decide on a price or conditions that are acceptable to the person selling the goods and the person buying them, usually by arguing:
It’s traditional that you haggle over/about the price of things in the market.
If you go to a street market, you’d better be prepared to haggle.
He’s got short, dark hair.
I’m going to have/get my hair cut.
She brushed her long, red hair.
He had lost his hair by the time he was 25.
He’s starting to get a few grey hairs now.
I found a hair in my soup.
I’m going to change my hairdresser.
I’ve got a four o’clock appointment at the hairdresser’s.
I asked my hairdresser to trim my fringe, but she’s cut it far too short.
She went to the hairdresser’s for a shampoo and set.
“What’s half of 96?” “48.”
Roughly half (of) the class are Spanish and the others are a mixture of nationalities.
Cut the apple in half/into halves (= into two equal parts).
My little brother is half as tall as me/half my height.
She hit her thumb with the hammer.
She took a hammer and knocked a hole in the wall.
pig’s meat from the leg or shoulder, preserved with salt or smoke
The ham was studded with cloves.
I’d like a ham sandwich on rye, hold the lettuce.
Would you like another slice of ham?
The meat produced from a pig is called pork, bacon or ham.
“More ham, Mr Fletcher?” “No thank you – it was delicious, but I’ve had a sufficiency .”
The baby gripped my finger with her tiny hand.
Hold the racquet in one hand and the ball in the other.
The school provides paper towels for the children to dry their hands on.
She handed me a tissue just as I sneezed.
Could you give/lend me a hand with (= help me to move) the table, please?
I think Matthew might need a hand with his maths homework.
The officers were allegedly handcuffed, arrested and questioned before being released after four hours.
They pushed her son against a wall and she was arrested and handcuffed.
a document containing information that is given to people at a meeting or other event:
Keep the information in your media handout factual and to the point.
a document given to students or reporters that contains information about a particular subject:
On page two of your handout you will find a list of the books that I have referred to during the lecture.
He’s not handsome – far from it.
Sam was tall, dark, and handsome.
In everyday English, people usually say good-looking rather than handsome:
Her new boyfriend is really good-looking.
|hang (hung or hanged)|
I hung my coat behind the door.
We could hang this picture on the wall next to the door.
He was found guilty and hanged later that year.
With so little evidence to prove her guilt, few people thought she should hang.
The woman tried to hang herself with a sheet.
|hang around –zaman geçirmek|
I spent most of my youth hanging around the bars of Dublin.
The people I used to hang around with were much older than me.
A funny thing happened in the office today.
What happened to your jacket?
What is the most important thing that has ever happened to you?
Our children have brought us so much happiness.
His grandchildren bring him great happiness.
One of the greatest sources of human happiness is love.
Living together before you marry is no guarantee of future happiness.
|happy ≠ unhappy|
Are you happy about/with your new working arrangements?
She looks so happy.
Ooh, you’re a hard woman, Elaine!
Our boss has been giving us all a hard time at work.
Giresun nuts have very hard shells.
There were some really hard questions in the exam.
It’s hard to say which of them is lying.
Our hotel room overlooked a pretty little fishing harbour.
|harmful ≠ harmless|
The drug thus seems to cut the harmful effects of metabolic syndrome.
It’s important to protect your skin from the harmful effects of the sun.
The programme makers disagree that seeing violence on television has a harmful effect on children.
Food must be heated to a high temperature to kill harmful bacteria.
Peter might look a bit fierce, but actually he’s fairly harmless.
There were those who found the joke offensive, but Johnson insisted it was just a bit of harmless fun.
Do I look ridiculous in this hat?
It was silly of you to go out in the hot sun without a hat.
For this movie, she is wearing the hats of director and actress.
The birds hatched out the next afternoon.
DON’T COUNT YOUR CHICKENS BEFORE THEY HATCH..
|hate ≠ like|
My job is so routine and boring – I hate it.
I would hate to lose contact with my old school friends.
He hates travelling by plane.
I stayed one night in Tours , I did not have chance to visit the city.
I think you have a good chance of getting the job.
Parents often have trouble finding good carers for their children.
He’s stayed out of trouble since he was released from jail last year.
I have trouble opening my car’s hood/bonnet.
|hawk: falcon (şahin-doğan)|
A hawk has a much smaller eye than a human being but has lots of sensors (cones) packed into that space.
I like swimming but I don’t like getting my head underwater.
Tim had a nasty bump on his head from when he’d fallen over.
She twisted her head round so she could see what was happening.
He fell asleep as soon as his head touched the pillow.
She signified her agreement by nodding her head.
someone in charge of or leading an organization, group, etc.:
the head of the History department
the head chef
his first season as head coach
I tried taking tablets for the headache but they didn’t have any effect.
It’s an extremely effective cure for a headache.
I had a terrible headache, but even so I went to the concert.
She didn’t want to go out, so she faked a headache.
He’s got a headache and a slight fever.
Regular physical exercise is good for your health.
I had to give up drinking for health reasons.
Her health was much improved after she started exercising.
I’m worried about my husband’s health.
The government has promised to spend more on health and education.
Healthcare workers are some of the lowest paid people in the country.
Many people in the country cannot afford health care.
An ageing population creates greater expenditure on health care.
He looks healthy enough.
A good diet and plenty of exercise will help you to keep your body healthy.
Fresh fruit and vegetables form an important part of a healthy diet.
The children never eat very much, but they seem quite healthy.
My grandfather is getting old and can’t hear very well.
You’ll have to speak up, I can’t hear you.
I heard someone calling my name.
|hearing – duruşma|
A disciplinary hearing will examine charges of serious professional misconduct against three surgeons.
He didn’t feel he got a fair hearing in court.
There is to be a public hearing next week in the Town Hall.
The hearing will be held behind closed doors.
He’s got a weak/bad heart (= his heart is not healthy).
Isabel’s heart was beating fast with fright.
How do you manage to work in this heat without air conditioning?
She always wore a coat, even in the heat of summer.
Cook the meat on a high/low heat (= at a high/low temperature).
A large house like this must be expensive to heat.
|heavy ≠ light|
This box is really heavy – can we put it down for a minute?
Several pieces of heavy equipment had to be manhandled into the lorry.
These books are too heavy for me to carry.
Hedgehogs have gained popularity as pets in recent decades. Before you add one to your family, Dr. Krista Keller, a veterinarian at the University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital in Urbana, recommends learning all you can about these animals’ unique needs. In the wild, hedgehogs eat a wide variety of bugs, plants, and roots.
|hell ≠ paradise|
in some religions, the place where some people are believed to go after death to be punished for ever for the bad things they have done during their lives:
Oh hell, I’ve forgotten my key!
What the hell was that noise?
GO TO HELL!
|help : assist : give a hand|
How can I help you?
I wonder if you could help me – I’d like some information about flights to Belgium.
You have been a great help.
If you can’t/couldn’t help something, such as acting in a particular way or making a particular remark, you are/were not able to control or stop it:
It was awful, but I couldn’t help laughing.
to take something for yourself:
“Might I have some more bread?” “Please, help yourself!”
He made several helpful suggestions.
I’m sorry, I was only trying to be helpful.
Chicken is the species name, equivalent to our “human.”
Rooster is an adult male, equivalent to “man.”
Hen is an adult female, equivalent to “woman.”
You don’t have to let your wife henpeck you.
Go home and show her you’re the boss not henpecked husband.
|here ≠ there|
I’ve lived here for about two years.
I like it here.
London is only 50 miles from here.
Come here – I’ve got something to show you.
I don’t know anything about this, but I’m sure my colleague here can help you.
I’m surprised to see you here.
Here’s the money I owe you.
He became a national hero for his part in the revolution.
Graham says he’ll take my parents to the airport at four o’clock in the morning – what a hero!
Detentions in Turkey over the ‘Hero’ t-shirts have continued since its start earlier in July after a suspect of the coup case attended his trial at court with a t-shirt written ‘Hero’ on it.
If you need anything, don’t hesitate to call me!
I have no hesitation in recommending her for the job.
After a slight hesitation, she began to speak.
I can’t stop hiccuping – does anyone know a good cure?
She tried to hide her disappointment at not getting the promotion.
|hide and seek|
Kids were playing hide-and-seek in the garden.
She’ll have a fantastic time trying to find you and, if you play hide-and-seek regularly.
This is the highest mountain in Japan.
How high is the Eiffel Tower?
If you want better public services, you’ll have to pay higher taxes – it’s as simple as that.
The train was approaching at high speed.
Our aim is to provide the highest quality service to all our customers.
Paul has extremely high blood pressure.
Their house is on the top of a hill.
|hire : rent|
I’ve just hired a housekeeper to clean my home 5 days a week …
The rest of the staff have been hired on short-term contracts.
I studied modern European history at college.
The fall of the Berlin Wall marked the dawn of a new era in European history.
He knows a lot about the history of this area, so he is often asked to speak at local clubs and societies.
Teachers are not allowed to hit their pupils.
This type of glass won’t shatter no matter how hard you hit it.
She hit her thumb with the hammer.
“vocational school“: meslek yüksek okulu
Have you decided where you’re going for your holiday(s) this year?
Patricia is on holiday next week.
How many days’ holiday do you get with your new job?
The area is a holy site for many Muslims.
Come in and make yourself at home.
Call me at home after five o’clock.
He left home (= stopped living with his parents) when he was 21.
Her home is in the east of Turkey.
I’d like you to give me an honest answer.
To be honest, I don’t think it will be possible.
To be honest the house is not quite our style.
Honestly, you’re wasting your breath – he doesn’t want to hear what anyone else has got to say.
And the moral of the story is that honesty is always the best policy.
I have no reason to doubt her honesty, it’s just that I can’t understand how it happened.
Well, I don’t want to offend anyone but, in all honesty, I do have some criticisms to make.
Pour the honey into the bowl and mix it thoroughly with the other ingredients.
The apple mixture can be sweetened with honey.
Where are you going on your honeymoon?
|honor : ONUR|
It is a great honor for me to have this opportunity to work in NATO.
It is an honor to meet you.
The dinner is in honor of (= to show respect for) a colleague who is leaving.
We are honored (= proud and pleased) that you have come to speak to our students.
UK (bonnet) the metal cover over the part of a car where the engine is:
I looked under the hood and clouds of smoke poured out.
part of a piece of clothing that can be pulled up to cover the top and back of the head:
The coat has a detachable hood.
It’s pouring – why don’t you put up your hood?
You can detach the hood if you prefer the coat without it.
Get your hopes up.
I hope they get the punishment they deserve.
What do you hope to gain from the course?
I was hoping to leave work early today.
He was hopeful about the outcome of the meeting.
I’m hopeful that we can reach a compromise.
When he first went for treatment at the hospital he seemed to be a hopeless case.
The situation seems to become more hopeless with every passing day.
The male deer grows large branching horns called antlers.
Kapalı Çarşı, İstanbul’un bir diğer önemli tarihi mekanlarından biri. Kapalı Çarşı esnafı Haliç’e “Altın Boynuz” isminin verilmesiyle ilgili iki rivayetten bahseder. İlki; Kapalı çarşı’da yüz yıllardır altın işlenmesi ile ilgilidir. Burda işlenen altının tozları sokaklara ister istemez dağılır. Yağmurlar ve su akıntıları sayesinde bu altın tozları asırlarca Haliç’e akmış. Bu nedenle “Altın”, Haliç (körfez) şeklinden dolayı da “Boynuz” ismini almış. Bir diğer rivayet ise; İstanbul’da Bizans döneminde olan bir deniz kazası ile ilgili. Bizans, İstanbul’u kaybedeceğini anlayınca “nasıl olsa yeniden alırız” mantığıyla kraliyet mücevherlerini bir gemiye koyarak batırmış. Fakat daha sonra bu gemiyi çıkartmak mümkün olmamış…
The sight was so horrible that I had to change my mind.
My horse is a bit timid and is easily frightened by traffic.
A total of 21 horses were entered for the race.
It’s a beautiful horse but a bit too frisky for an inexperienced rider.
The hospital is carrying out tests to find out what’s wrong with her.
She spent a week in the hospital last year.
I’ve got to go to the hospital to have an operation.
Is the water hot enough for a bath?
I like to sunbathe in the morning when the sun is not so hot.
The exam lasted an hour and a half.
There are 24 hours in a day.
I waited for him for hours.
The trip from York to Newcastle takes about an hour by train.
It costs a lot to buy a house in this part of London.
I’m worried about leaving him alone in the house all day.
She had to be rescued by her neighbours when her house caught fire.
to give a person or animal a place to live, or to provide space for something:
It will be difficult to house all the refugees.
The museum houses the biggest collection of antique toys in Europe.
She’s not the type of person to stay at home and be a housewife.
A group of housewives stood chatting outside the butcher’s shop.
All of these modern appliances undoubtedly make life easier for today’s housewife.
How often do you wash your hair?
– How often does he go to the library? He goes to the library every Saturday.
(O hangi sıklıkla kütüphaneye gider?O her cumartesi kütüphaneye gider.)
– How often do you eat fruit? We eat fruit every day.
(Hangi sıklıkla meyve yersiniz?Biz her gün meyve yeriz.)
The hug is a universal interaction between two people that is a way to say hello and good-bye and even comfort in times of need, worry, pain or disappointment.
They live in a huge house.
|human : human being|
It was thought that the disease could not be passed to human beings.
The human body is composed of about 60 percent water.
The human ear cannot hear very high-frequency sounds.
Of course I make mistakes, I’m only human (= I am not perfect).
The accident was due to human error (= a person’s mistake).
|humble : modest|
He’s very humble about his success.
He just humiliated her in front of everyone – it was so unnecessary.
By four o’clock I felt/was really hungry.
The children are always hungry when they get home from school.
There are too many hungry people in the world.
Turkish investigators continue to hunt for clues to what happened to Jamal Khashoggi amid growing indications that some of the men allegedly responsible for the journalist’s killing have close ties to the highest levels of the Saudi government.
The hunters followed the tracks of the deer for hours.
The hunters skinned the deer they had killed.
The hunters spent hours pursuing their prey.
|hurricane – KASIRGA|
The hurricane is predicted to reach the coast tomorrow morning.
|hurry: hurry up|
Hurry up or we’ll miss the train.
“Can you wait a few minutes?” “No, I’m in hurry.”
Come on – we’re going to be late if you don’t hurry!
Tell me where it hurts.
She says that her ear hurts her.
The pond was covered in ice all winter.
Would you like ice in your juice?
I’ve put a couple of bottles of champagne on ice (= in a container of ice to get cold).
Snow and ice have caused chaos on the roads.
Danny, come here and choose your ice cream.
We sell 32 different flavours of ice cream.
I’m afraid Martha’s eaten the last of the ice cream.
Can I have a lick of your ice cream?
She doesn’t like the idea of living so far away from her family.
Where’s Serge? I’ve no idea. I’m not married – where did you get that idea ?
Most of the bodies were badly burned, making identification almost impossible.
We were asked to show some identification (ID) before the security guards would let us in.
Please may I see some identification?
Wellington Barracks is a restricted area and anyone who enters should have identification.
All foreign nationals are required to carry identity cards.
To “have bitten off more than you can chew” is an idiom that means you have tried to do something which is too difficult for you.
Some idiot left the tap running in the bathroom and there’s water everywhere.
You stupid idiot.
lack of knowledge, understanding, or information about something:
Public ignorance about the disease is still a cause for concern.
Patients, it is claimed, were kept/left in ignorance of what was wrong with them.
I didn’t ignore her intentionally – I just didn’t recognize her.
How can the government ignore the wishes of the majority?
I smiled at her but she just ignored me.
|ill : sick : patient|
He’s been ill with meningitis.
We are lacking three members of staff due to illness.
Many people suffer from some form of mental illness during their lives.
Many illnesses which once killed are today curable.
Four million hours were lost last year through stress-related illnesses.
She imagined herself sitting in her favourite armchair back home.
Imagine that you’re eating an ice cream.
Was it just my imagination or did I hear John’s voice in the other room?
He’s one of those people with a very vivid imagination – every time he hears a noise he’s convinced it’s someone breaking in.
Her imagination was kindled by the exciting stories her
We really ought to leave immediately.
The purpose of the meeting wasn’t immediately obvious.
My grandparents arrived here as immigrants from Russia in 1910.
Illegal immigrants are sent back across the border if they are caught.
These organizations have fought very hard for the rights and welfare of immigrants.
He immigrated with his parents in 1895 and grew up on Long Island.
There are strict limits on immigration (into the country).
The prime minister denied that the new visa requirements were part of a hidden agenda to reduce immigration.
The prime minister has adopted an inflexible position on immigration.
What is your party’s policy on immigration?
I think his career is more important to him than I am.
It’s important for children to learn to get on with each other.
|impossible : out of the question|
He made it impossible for me to say no.
It was impossible to sleep because of the noise.
I am impressed by his behaviour in his office.
I was impressed with his house.
I want to be a very impressive public speaker like you.
Talking to native speakers is a great way of improving your spoken English.
I thought the best way to improve my French was to live in France.
There’s been a definite improvement in Mike’s English since we started.
We made some improvements to the house before selling it.
There’s been no improvement in his condition.
because of a possibility of something happening, being needed, etc.:
Bring a map in case you get lost.
Take an umbrella, in case it rains.
Write it down in case you forget.
He had his camera ready, just in case he saw something that would make a good picture.
|in case of|
in connection with someone or something, or in the situation of something:
The law will apply equally to men and women except in the case of maternity leave.
|in recent years|
Sales have fallen by more than 75 percent in recent years.
|increase ≠ decrease|
We need to increase public awareness of the disease.
Our main aim is to increase sales by 12% this year.
Studies show that if a working environment is pleasant, productivity increases.
It seems incredible that no one foresaw the crisis.
It’s important that parents should allow their children some independence.
The country declared independence in 1952.
Mexico gained its independence from Spain in l821.
Independence Day: in the US, the official name for the Fourth of July holiday.
Our goal is for the country to be fully independent within two years.
I informed my boss that I was going to be away next week.
Keep me informed about any job opportunities.
She informed her tenants that she was raising the rent.
Do you have any information about/on train times?
I read an interesting bit/piece of information in the newspaper.
For further information (= if you want to know more), please contact your local library.
We have reliable information that a strike is planned next month.
She was disappointed to see her essay returned with a mass of corrections in red ink.
When you fill in the form, please write clearly in black ink.
There’s a chance of injury in almost any sport.
Several train passengers received/sustained serious injuries in the crash.
He was removed from the game with a knee injury.
He suffered an injury to his back at work.
|innocent ≠ guilty|
He firmly believes that she is innocent of the crime.
The recording industry is driven by constant innovation.
His latest innovation is a theater company that will perform for schools.
Their success lies in combining an effective innovation process with superior product concept.
Ants, beetles, butterflies, and flies are all insects.
I’ve got some sort of insect bite on my leg
Did you clean the inside of the car?
The inside of the house is in good condition, but externally it’s in need of repair.
“Is Anna in the garden?” “No, she’s inside (= in the house).”
What’s inside the box?
She still insists that he did nothing wrong.
She insisted on seeing her lawyer.
I don’t know why you insist on talking about it.
At her father’s insistence, Amelia’s been moved into a new class.
Holly suffered from insomnia caused by stress at work.
She held the bank note up to the light and inspected it carefully.
The police experts inspected the crime scene thoroughly before leaving.
I got out of the car to inspect the damage.
Police inspected the scene and interviewed all the staff.
The inspector said that standards at the school had to be raised.
We’re awaiting a visitation from the inspector.
|instead / instead of|
We went by train instead of by car.
I’m going to drop yoga and do aerobics instead.
There’s no coffee – would you like a cup of tea instead?
You can go instead of me, if you want.
I wish you’d spend more time at home instead of going out drinking with your friends every night.
|insult : humiliate|
She made several insults about my appearance.
The steelworkers’ leader rejected the two percent pay rise saying it was an insult to the profession.
The instructions are so easy they are an insult to your intelligence (= they seem to suggest you are not clever if you need to use them).
to say or do something to someone that is rude or offensive:
First he drank all my wine and then he insulted all my friends.
You can’t offer such a low salary to someone who is so highly skilled – it’s insulting.
|in charge of : responsible for|
Who will be in charge of the department when Sophie leaves?
They received intelligence reports that the factory was a target for the bombing.
He believes that all children are born with equal intelligence.
You can’t do that, man – use your intelligence!
|intelligent : smart: clever: genius|
Why Intelligent People Tend To Be Unhappy?
She is really a highly intelligent young woman..
Somehow I offended him, which wasn’t what I’d intended.
We intend to go to Australia next year.
This intensive course is targeted at researchers of universities.
It wasn’t my intention to exclude her from the list – I just forgot her.
I’ve no intention of changing my plans just to fit in with his.
He didn’t seem very interested in what I was saying.
I’d be interested to hear more about your work.
“Really?” he said, with an interested look on his face.
She’s quite an interesting woman.
There are three levels of difficulty in this game: low, intermediate, and high.
This novel is too difficult for intermediate students of English.
The website is intended for intermediate and advanced French-language students and teachers.
He was the boss of a large international company.
The Davis Cup is an important international tennis championship.
Lineker announced his retirement from international football before the 1992 European Championships.
We had to ask our guide to interpret for us.
An interpreter deals with the spoken word.
She tried to explain what had happened but he kept interrupting her.
Please feel free to interrupt me if you don’t understand anything.
I had an interview for a job with a publisher.
In a television interview last night she denied she had any intention of resigning.
It creates a very bad impression if you’re late for an interview.
We’ve had 200 applicants for the job, but we only plan to interview about 20 of them.
I interviewed for several jobs but I didn’t get any of them.
(either of the two parts of) a long tube through which food travels from the stomach and out of the body while it is being digested:
Antibodies from the mother’s milk line the baby’s intestines and prevent infection.
|in terms of : hakkında|
Our goods compete in terms of product quality, reliability and above all variety.
Paris has played a dominant role in France, not just in political terms but also in economic power.
In financial terms, the project was not a success.
In terms of money, I was better off in my last job.
In terms of emissions cleanliness, sugar ethanol is considered superior.
Onur, let me introduce you to Burak.
I’d like to introduce my son.
May I introduce myself? My name is Sonia Faraguna.
The government introduced a law prohibiting tobacco advertisements on TV.
The company plans to introduce 45 new models over the next five years.
The World Wide Web (www) was invented in 1989.
Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876.
The world changed rapidly after the invention of the phone.
The 20th century was remarkable for its inventions.
The dishwasher is a wonderful invention.
The invention of the computer has revolutionized the business world.
Why don’t you invite her for a drink at the club one evening?
I’m afraid I wasn’t invited to the meeting.
You invite someone to an event or a place:
Did they invite you to the wedding?
She invited me to her house.
You invite someone for a meal or a period of time:
He invited us for brunch.
I’ll invite them for the weekend.
Invoices must be submitted by the 24th of every month.
|iron : hem demir hem ütü yapmak|
The earth’s core is a hot, molten mix of iron and nickel.
The autopsy revealed that his murderer had struck him on the head with an iron bar.
It takes about five minutes to iron a shirt properly.
There are over a thousand uninhabited islands in the seas around Greece.
The islands were so remote that they could only be reached at certain times of the year.
She had booked a beach house on the island paradise of Phuket.
I dream of living on a tropical island.
What do you think about this issue?
|jackass : idiot|
What’s he doing up there? He’s a jackass.
|jail : prison|
The financier was released from jail last week.
They spent ten years in jail for fraud.
They don’t throw anyone in jail for parking illegally, but they will tow your car and charge you a fine.
a person who has been in prison
Anna says she feels jealous every time another woman looks at her boyfriend.
Why are you jealous of her?
She was suffering from jet lag and needed to rest.
Although my family is Jewish, we’re not practising Jews (= actively involved in the religion).
New York has one of the largest Jewish communities in the world.
They stole jewellery valued at £50 000.
The insurance company said I should have my jewellery valued.
Thieves broke the shop window and carried off jewellery worth thousands of bucks.
I’m looking for a new job.
Raising kids can be a difficult job.
Mark doesn’t have a job right now.
I’ve applied for a job at the university.
The job is only temporary, but I’m hoping it will be made permanent.
Oh, Rick, you didn’t quit your job, did you?
to run at a slow, regular speed, especially as a form of exercise:
“What do you do to keep fit?” “I jog and go swimming.”
He was walking at a very quick pace and I had to jog to keep up with him.
the activity of running at a slow, regular speed, especially as a form of exercise:
He usually goes jogging for half an hour before breakfast.
|join : attend|
I don’t have time for a drink now, but I’ll join you later.
|joke : pull someone’s leg|
You must be joking if you think I’m going to stand in the rain watching you play rugby!
Don’t take everything so personally. It was only a joke.
|journal : magazine|
The job was being advertised in a steel industry trade journal.
He’s had several articles published in scholarly journals.
The journalist asked the minister how he viewed recent events.
The journalist took notes throughout the interview.
The government has refused to allow foreign journalists into the area for several weeks.
|journey : to travel|
They estimate that the journey will take at least two weeks.
The journey was quite quick because the road was clear .
I expect you’d like to rest after your long journey.
|judge – yargıç, hakim, yargılamak|
The judge reminded the witness that she was under oath.
The judge will pronounce sentence on the defendant this afternoon.
In Britain, judges wear white wigs in court.
You shouldn’t judge by/on appearances alone.
He seems to be handling the job well, but it’s too soon to judge.
You can’t judge a book by its cover.
|judicial – adli|
involving a law court:
the judicial system
Fresh orange juice should be refrigerated after opening and drunk within three days.
How to jump out of a plane, and what it’s like… Parachuting was a fantastic experience.
There’s no justice in the world when people can be made to suffer like that.
The winner has been disqualified for cheating, so justice has been done (= a fair situation has been achieved).
|keen to : eager|
They were very keen to start work as soon as possible.
Remember to put some address labels on the suitcases.
|keep in touch|
Are you still in touch with any of your old school friends?
Jane and I never kept in touch after college.
I don’t like the design of this kettle.
The kettle needs a new element.
I want to plug the kettle into the right-hand socket.
She suddenly remembered (that) her keys were in her other bag.
Please hand in your keys at reception on your departure from the hotel.
Member states have a key role to play in supervising the execution of judgments against Turkey from the European Court of Human Rights, many of them regarding freedom of expression and freedom of assembly, and reminding Ankara of its obligations under the convention.
|kid: çocuk ya da dalga geçmek|
I’m just kidding you!
Oh no, I’ve forgotten your birthday! Hey, just/only kidding!
He took the kids to the park while I was working.
The wife of a businessman has been kidnapped from her home in Surrey.
In the note, the kidnapper instructed the parents of the kidnapped girl to put $10,000 cash in a diaper bag.
They are waiting for a kidney donor and time is running out fast.
She suffered kidney failure and needed a blood transfusion.
The kidney plays a vital role in the removal of waste products from the blood.
Kidney stones are hardened mineral deposits that form in the kidney.
|kill : murder : homicide|
Her parents were killed in a plane crash.
Smoking can kill.
Food must be heated to a high temperature to kill harmful bacteria.
We were early for our appointment, so we killed time at a bookstore.
I killed time reading a novel.
|kindergarten : nursery school|
Kindergarten (nursery school) is used in many parts of the world for the first stages of a child’s classroom education.
Prince Juan Carlos of Spain became king in 1975.
Most modern kings and queens rule only in a formal way, without real power.
The Spanish Armada was sent by the king of Spain to invade England in 1588.
He bowed down before the king and begged for mercy.
He kissed her gently and stroked her hair.
She raised the crucifix to her lips and kissed it.
When I was a child, I used to hate being kissed by visiting relatives.
The delicious smell of freshly-made coffee came from the kitchen.
Our washing machine broke down yesterday and flooded the kitchen.
He was busy peeling apples in the kitchen.
On windy days the kids fly their kites in the park.
The baby was crawling around on its hands and knees.
He got/went down on his knees (= got into a position where his knees were on the ground) in front of the altar.
|kneel : diz çökmek|
She knelt down to look under the bed for her doll.
Gibbons kneeled next to the plant and started digging.
Be careful with that knife or you’ll cut yourself!
Your table manners are appalling – don’t you know how to use a knife and fork?
He said that the man had pointed a knife at him.
You really need a knife with a serrated edge for cutting bread.
She knocked on the window to attract his attention.
There’s someone knocking on/at the door.
Please knock before entering.
He knocked quietly before entering the room.
She knocked on the table to get our attention.
I don’t know anything about this.
We don’t know when he’s arriving.
Her knowledge of English grammar is very extensive.
He has a limited knowledge of French.
The details of the scandal are now common knowledge (= familiar to most people).
Washing instructions should be on the label.
Follow the instructions on the label.
The label says to take one dose three times a day.
If you spend any time in prison, you’re labelled as a criminal for the rest of your life.
He didn’t want to be labeled a complainer, so he didn’t raise any objection to the extra work.
It’s safe to cross the road now. That ladder doesn’t look safe.
Do you like walking under ladders?
I’ve bought a shoulder of lamb for Sunday lunch.
She bought a side of lamb from the butcher’s shop.
I switched on the lamp behind the armchair.
I bought a new table lamp.
A popular landmark, the Basilique du Sacré-Cœur is located at the summit of Montmartre, the highest point in Paris.
Sadly, 29 people lost their lives in the floods and landslides caused by the torrential rain.
|late ≠ early|
LIt was late at night.
We talked late into the night.
It was built in the late 19th century.
From the late 19th century, European powers began to gain control of parts of the Ottoman Empire.
You’ll be late for your flight if you don’t hurry up.
She does research into how children acquire language.
Do you speak any foreign languages?”
I’m hopeless at learning languages.
I’ll have the last laugh. Who gets the last laugh?
In Europe and North America, apartment buildings and dormitories often have laundry rooms, where residents share washing machines and dryers and usually the machines are set to run only when money is put in a coin slot.
What does the law say about having alcohol in the blood while driving?
Of course robbery is against the law!
The judge ruled that the directors had knowingly broken the law.
You can’t take that course of action and remain within the law.
They have to provide a contract by law.
It was a detailed study of international human rights law.
She’s going to study law at university.
She’s hired a lawyer who specializes in divorce cases.
Our lawyer thinks that we have a very good case.
He’s too lazy to walk to work. Get out of bed you lazy thing!
As project leader, you will have to allocate jobs to people.
He’s a natural leader.
She was elected as leader of the campaign group.
|leaf (plural leaves)|
one of the flat, usually green parts of a plant that are joined at one end to the stem or branch:
a palm leaf
a thin sheet of paper – DEFTER YAPRAĞI
I’ve learned a lot about computers since I started work here.
I’m learning to play the piano.
First you’ll learn (how) to use this machine.
I got horribly drunk once at college and that was enough – I learnt my lesson.
I didn’t leave the office until eight o’clock last night.
A young girl was crying, protesting that she didn’t want to leave her mother.
Hey, you’ve left your keys on the table.
Can I leave a message for Sue?
Why don’t you leave the kids with me on Friday?
He left work in June for health reasons.
I’ll never leave you.
to not eat or use all of something:
They’d eaten all the cake, but they’d left some sandwiches.
Are there any cookies left?
There’s some food left over from the party.
She’s (gone) on leave (= holiday).
We went to a lecture on Italian art.
Who’s giving the lecture this afternoon?
My dad gave me a lecture on the evils of alcohol last night.
someone who teaches at a college or university:
A lecturer is a teacher at a university or college.
His father was a lawyer and his mother a college lecturer.
My legs were tired after so much walking.
He broke his leg skiing.
The horse broke its front leg in the fall.
She doesn’t like lending her books.
If you need a coat I can lend you mine.
The bank agreed to lend him $5,000.
All right, I’ll lend you the money.
Can you lend me a few dollars until tomorrow?
The government is trying to encourage the banks to lend more.
|let me down: hayal kırıklığına uğratmak|
You will be there tomorrow – you won’t let me down, will you?
I got a letter from the bank this morning.
He read her letter aloud to the rest of the family.
I folded the letter in half and put it in an envelope.
any of the set of symbols used to write a language, in many languages, representing a sound in the language:
She wrote her name on the board in large letters (harf).
A public library is a building where things such as books, newspapers, videos, and music are kept for people to read, use, or borrow.
The publication can be found in academic and reference libraries.
You shouldn’t lift anything heavy if you have a bad back.
They lifted me onto a stretcher and took me to the ambulance.
Could you help me lift this table, please?
Could you lift your chair a little- I’ve got my coat caught under it.
Take the lift to the sixth floor.
It was very uncomfortable lying on the hospital bed with my legs suspended in the air.
He was lying under the table in a drunken stupor.
The ship has been lying on the seabed for more than 50 years.
My dog loves lying on the rug in front of the fire.
The town lies halfway between Rome and Florence.
to say or write something that is not true in order to deceive someone:
Are you lying to me?
Don’t trust her – she’s lying.
I suspect he lies about his age.
How is the life?
Life’s too short to worry about money!
I’m not sure I want to spend the rest of my life with him.
Unfortunately, accidents are part of life.
Cats are supposed to have nine lives.
|light ≠ heavy|
Light was streaming in through the open door.
It’s a north-facing room so it doesn’t get much light (= brightness from the sun).
Could you switch/turn the light on/off, please?
The light was so bright that I had to cover my eyes.
something that will produce a flame and cause burning, such as a match or a cigarette lighter:
Have you got a light, please?
not weighing a lot:
Here, take this bag – it’s quite light.
I often charge my mobile phone or iPod using the cigarette lighter in my car.
He likes to spend his evenings in front of the television.
He used to like spending Friday nights with the boys.
You’re acting like a complete idiot!
She sings like an angel!
There’s no age limit for applicants.
My wife and I set a limit on how much we spend on clothes.
He’d reached the limit of his patience.
There’s no limit to what you can do if you try.
The advanced course is limited to those who have already taken the introductory course.
A limited number of tickets will be on sale from tomorrow.
We are doing what we can with limited resources.
There are only a limited number of tickets available.
My knowledge of the business is limited.
The lion is a member of the cat family.
The girl stood gazing in pity at the old lion in the cage.
Lion – The King Of The Forest is the second biggest wild cat after the Siberian tiger.
He licked his lips on a hot summer day.
At a glance, it seems as if there is lipstick on the lips.
What kind of music do you listen to?
She does all the talking – I just sit and listen.
You haven’t listened to a word I’ve said!
It’ll only take a little while to clear up the kitchen.
When you were little your hair was really curly.
She was my little (= younger) sister and I took care of her.
I had a little problem with my car, but it’s been fixed now.
The government has done little or nothing to help the poorest people in this country.
They have very little money.
The study found that men who were married lived longer than those who were not.
He only lived a few days after the accident.
I hope I live to see my grandchildren.
(of a performance) broadcast, recorded, or seen while it is happening:
This evening there will be a live broadcast of the debate.
The liver is the only internal human organ capable of natural regeneration of lost tissue.
I fail to see the logic behind his argument.
If prices go up, wages will go up too – that’s just logic.
There’s no logic in the decision to reduce staff when orders are the highest they have been for years.
|logical : rational|
It was the logical thing to do (= the decision was a reasonable one when all the facts were considered).
After the children were grown, moving to a smaller house was the logical thing to do.
He tried to think logically.
I’ve been waiting a long time.
How long have you been in England?
There was a long queue at the post office.
They looked at the picture and laughed.
Look at all these toys on the floor.
She looked up from her book and smiled at me.
I looked out (of) the window.
I’m looking for my keys.
I looked everywhere, but I couldn’t find my glasses.
Have you looked in the dictionary?
You look well!
The roads look very icy.
That dress looks nice on you.
|look after: birine bakmak|
Looking after the kids is extremely tiring. I’ve had a very tiring day.
We look after the neighbours’ cat while they’re away.
If you look after your clothes they last a lot longer.
Don’t worry about Mia – she can look after herself.
|look for: aramak|
I’m looking for my keys.
|look forward to: 4 gözle beklemek|
I’m really looking forward to my holiday.
I’ve lost my ticket and my car keys.
At least 200 staff will lose their jobs if the factory closes.
He lost his leg in a car accident and lost her mother (= her mother died) last year.
I’m trying to lose weight.
He’s losing his hair.
They’re losing 3–1.
Could you speak a little louder, please?
I heard a loud crash in the kitchen.
She spoke very loudly.
|love : like|
You may love someone without necessarily wanting to marry them.
He said he would always love her .
I think Phil has to face the fact that she no longer loves him.
She faces the dilemma of disobeying her father or losing the man she loves.
When I tried to tell her that I loved her it just came out all wrong.
She has lovely eyes.
You look lovely in that dress.
|low ≠ high|
That new shelf in the bathroom is too low – I just hit my head on it.
The big supermarket offers the lowest prices in town.
These people are living on relatively low incomes.
They spoke in low voices so I would not hear what they were saying.
She has been a good and loyal friend to me.
Jack has been a loyal worker in this company for almost 50 years.
When all her other friends deserted her, Steve remained loyal.
She’s very loyal to her friends.
Elizabeth understood her husband’s loyalty to his sister.
Sarah was criticized for her blind loyalty to her husband.
Family loyalty prevented her from telling what she knew.
It was just luck that I asked for a job at the right time.
So your interview’s tomorrow? Good luck!
Thelma’s always moaning about something, and forgets how lucky she actually is.
He’s lucky that he wasn’t fired.
The character is usually soft, like singing a lullaby.
There’s a high correlation between smoking and lung cancer.
The knife went through his ribs and punctured his lung.
Scientists have established the relationship between lung cancer and smoking.
They have a very luxurious house.
We spent a luxurious weekend at a country hotel.
How can I live in luxury on a budget?
|mad : angry|
Are you still mad at me?
He’s always complaining and it makes me so mad.
He must be mad spending all that money on a coat.
She’s completely mad.
Do you want me to make some coffee?
He made a chocolate cake.
If you make the main course, I’ll make a dessert.
I have to make a phone call.
She made a short speech.
We must make a decision by tomorrow.
You’re not making any effort.
Someone has made a mistake/an error.
|make ends meet|
My wages were so low that I had to take a second job just to make ends meet.
|make any difference|
You can ask him again if you like, but it won’t make any difference – he’ll still say no.
|make decision: take decision|
We must make a decision by tomorrow.
|make sense: anlamlandırmak|
It doesn’t make sense to wait here for 2 hours.
This last paragraph doesn’t make any sense.
|male ≠ female|
We use female and male to refer to the sex of humans and animals: …
A male chicken is called a cock and a female chicken is called a hen.
What percentage of the adult male population is unemployed?
|man ≠ woman (plural men ≠ women)|
The man from the newspaper wrote some positive things about the movie.
Our man in Washington sent us the news by fax yesterday.
Hey, man, how are you doing?
you the man!
used to praise a person who has done something well
How did you manage to get such a great job?
I don’t know how actors manage to learn all those lines.
How do you manage to work in this heat without air conditioning?
He’s not very good at managing people.
Don’t worry about us – we’ll manage.
I only just managed to finish on time.
The company has suffered from several years of bad management.
The failure of many small businesses is caused by bad management.
The management has agreed to the policy.
We need a large-scale map showing all the footpaths that we can walk along.
I’ll draw you a quick map if you’re worried about finding the hotel.
I’m not quite sure how to get there – I’d better consult a map.
|mare : kısrak|
nightmare: gece kısrağı yani kabus
an adult female horse
|marry ≠ divorce|
Do you suppose that Serhat will marry him?
He’s been single for so long now, I don’t think he’ll ever marry.
I married Sevgi, my girlfriend from high school.
We’ve been happily married for five years.
Please state whether you are single, married, separated, divorced or widowed.
I have been married with two children.
Chris and Debbie got married last summer.
Jamie’s getting married to Laura.
I don’t know what the matter is with the car, but it won’t start.
Could I talk to you about a personal matter?
What’s the matter? What’s wrong with you ? Why are you crying?
What’s the matter with your hand? It’s bleeding..
|meal : yemek|
I don’t think you appreciate how much time I spent preparing this meal.
This meal is on me. It is on me.
What exactly do you mean by that remark?
What do you mean, it was my fault?
I didn’t mean to cause you any trouble.
The literal meaning of ‘television’ is ‘seeing from a distance’.
It’s sometimes very difficult to draw a clear distinction between the meanings of different words.
The word “flight” has two different meanings: a plane journey, and the act of running away.
The meat produced from a pig is called pork, bacon, or ham.
I gave up eating meat a few months ago.
I don’t eat meat – I’m vegetarian.
Take two spoonfuls of medicine at mealtimes.
She knows a lot about herbal medicines.
Pediatrics is a branch of medicine.
She continued to practice medicine until she was in her eighties.
Nice to meet you.
I’d like you to meet Ann Gregory, my deputy.
It’s important to create a good impression when you meet a new client.
It’s not always easy to meet members of the opposite sex.
We agreed to meet on Tuesday to discuss the project.
We’re having a meeting on Thursday to discuss the problem.
I’m sorry but she’s in a meeting – I’ll ask her to call you back later.
I’ve just become a member of the company’s sports and social club.
The members of the jury left the court with a police escort.
When I was at school, we were required to memorize a poem every week.
She needs to memorize her friends’ phone numbers.
After the accident he suffered from loss of memory/memory loss.
She has an excellent memory for names (= she can remember names easily).
Sorry, I have a terrible memory for names – I’ve forgotten what your daughter is called.
Did she happen to mention whether she would be coming?
Nothing worth mentioning..
Don’t mention it!
said to be polite after someone has thanked you:
“Thanks for your help.” “Don’t mention it.”
I am just messenger. Don’t shoot/kill the messenger.
The documents were delivered by special messenger.
The cities are full of migrants looking for work.
Mexican farm workers migrate into the US each year to find work at harvest time.
These animals migrate annually in search of food.
In September, these birds migrate 2,000 miles south to a warmer climate.
She’s interested in bat migration.
What will be the most significant migration issues over the next 10 years?
He felt that moving out from his parents’ home was a real milestone in his life.
Spain was an important military power in the 16th century.
The minister argued against making cuts in military spending.
The President visited a military cemetery at Bitburg.
Do you take milk in your tea?
Don’t use up all the milk, we need some for breakfast.
The Milky Way, or simply the Galaxy, is the galaxy in which the Solar System is located.
Do you have a clear picture in your mind of what you want?
The event is still fresh in most people’s minds.
I just said the first thing that came into my mind.
Her mind was full of what had happened the night before, and she just wasn’t concentrating.
If you change your mind about coming tonight, just give me a call.
He couldn’t make up his mind about what to do with the money.
I wish he’d hurry up and make his mind up.
Would you mind turning (= please turn) your radio down a little please?
Do you mind if I (= may I) put the TV on?
I don’t mind the heat, in fact I quite like it.
[ + obj + -ing verb ] Do you mind me smoking?
Mind your head – the ceiling’s a bit low.
Jesus Christ was said to have performed miracles like turning water into wine.
Looking at the state of his car, it’s a miracle (that) he wasn’t killed!
He spends hours in front of the mirror!
When I looked in the mirror I couldn’t believe it. I looked fantastic!
Check your rear-view mirror before you drive away.
She was looking at her reflection in the mirror.
Don’t blame me if you miss the bus!
You’ll miss your flight if you don’t hurry up.
I was sorry I missed you at Pat’s party – I must have arrived after you left.
My office is first on the right with a bright red door. You can’t miss it (= it is very easy to find).
to feel sad that a person or thing is not present:
I really missed her when she went away.
Hey, Miss, you dropped a glove!
My mission in life is to educate the rich about the suffering of the poor.
She’s a woman with a mission and she’s absolutely determined to finish the project.
Mission accomplished. I’ve got everything you asked for on the list.
I told him I’d meet him here, but perhaps he misunderstood and went straight to the pub.
There must be some misunderstanding. I never asked for these chairs to be delivered.
His ridiculous comments showed a complete misunderstanding of the situation.
He forgot the charger for his mobile phone.
I need a mobile phone as I’m always on the move.
A mobile phone makes you contactable wherever you are.
|modest : humble|
You are very modest about your achievements, talents and abilities.
They live in a fairly modest house, considering their wealth.
Money makes money.
“How much money do you have on you?” “€200 in notes and a few coins.”
Using a bunch of bananas, the zoo-keeper persuaded the monkey back into its cage.
What’s the difference between an ape and a monkey?
The movie was about a huge green monster.
He thinks there are monsters under his bed.
You’d have to be a monster to hit a child like that.
What time does the moon rise/set (= appear/disappear in the sky)?
The young lovers sat in the moonlight.
The east wall of the mosque is covered with a beautiful mosaic.
The town’s main features are its beautiful mosque and ancient marketplace.
Some types of mosquito transmit malaria to humans.
|mouse : mice (çoğulu)|
The mouse looked around the room inquisitively.
A mouse has nibbled through the computer cables.
Groucho Marx had a thick, black moustache.
He shaved off his beard but kept his moustache.
Greg decided to grow a moustache.
I wish he’d shave off that moustache!
Don’t look at me – I never opened my mouth.
I wish you wouldn’t chew with your mouth open.
Could you move your car, please? It’s blocking the road.
I could hear someone moving around upstairs.
We’ve moved seven or eight times in the last five years.
My parents kept moving house because of my dad’s job.
A slight movement of the curtains showed where she was hiding.
There’s been no movement in the peace talks since Thursday.
Don’t make any quick movements that might scare the dog.
The museum is full of rare and precious treasures.
Make sure you visit the maritime museum if you’re interested in anything to do with ships or seafaring.
The museum houses the biggest collection of antique toys in Europe.
|mushroom : fungus|
For this recipe choose mushrooms with large caps (= top parts).
Unfortunately some poisonous mushrooms look like edible mushrooms.
There’s a nasty smell in here.
He had a nasty cut above the eye.
Don’t be so nasty to your brother – he’s four years younger than you!
She said some really nasty things about him.
The application form asks you to state your name, age, and nationality.
She has British nationality.
What nationality are you?
He has dual British and American nationality.
She’s a native Californian.
French is his native tongue/language.
Sri Lanka is my native country, but I’ve been living in Belgium for the past five years.
I know I’ll never speak French like a native speaker.
All our teachers are native speakers of English.
As many as two out of every three Americans do not know the words to their own National Anthem.
They both enlisted in the navy a year before the war broke out.
My brother is an officer in the Navy.
Gabriel joined the navy in 1997.
Is there a restaurant near here?
I’d like to sit near a window, please.
Don’t come too near me – you might catch my cold.
The hotel is near the airport.
Difference between near and nearby
The first is usually a preposition: I live near the mosque.
The second is an adverb: There is a mosque nearby.
If there’s a café nearby, we could stop for a snack.
I noticed a policeman standing nearby.
We stopped at some nearby shops to buy some food.
Just do what’s necessary and then leave.
Was it really necessary for you to say that?
She wears a gold cross round her neck.
Sitting still at a computer terminal all day can give you a stiff neck.
I need to go to the toilet.
What you need is a nice hot bowl of soup.
He needs to lose some weight.
I need to do some shopping on my way home from work.
You needn’t have washed all those dishes, you know – I’d have done them myself when I got home.
Are you in need of help?
Housing and education are basic needs.
I need you to advise me on what to wear.
Drug users are at risk when they share needles.
I don’t think he even knows how to use a needle!
It will be like looking for a needle in a haystack.
“Negro” is now considered offensive by most people, and “African-American” is used instead.
Some of the neighbours have complained about the noise from our party.
Have you met Nazan, my next-door neighbour?
The relationship between Turkey and its southern neighbour has not always been peaceful.
I’ve asked my neighbour to water the plants while I’m away.
the area of a town that surrounds someone’s home, or the people who live in this area:
There were lots of kids in my neighbourhood when I was growing up.
They live in a wealthy/poor/friendly neighbourhood.
I wouldn’t like to live in the neighbourhood of (= in the area around) an airport.
|nephew – niece|
I took my two-year old nephew down to the beach with his bucket and spade.
My niece was showing me all the tricks that she’s learned to do with her new magic set.
I was very nervous about driving again after the accident.
I thought I would remain calm, but when I was confronted with/by the TV camera, I became very nervous.
Cuckoos are famous for laying their eggs in the nests of other birds.
The alligators build their nests out of grass near the water’s edge.
We’ve never been to Australia.
I’ve never heard anything so ridiculous.
BETTER LATE THAN NEVER.
She’s very creative and always coming up with new ideas.
What have they decided to name the new baby?
What’s new in the fashion world?
Have you met the new secretary?
She’s looking for a new job.
That’s the best (piece of) news I’ve heard for a long time!
We’ve had no news of them since they left for Australia.
Have you heard the news about Tina and Tom? They’re getting divorced.
Was there anything interesting on the news tonight?
I was devastated when the doctor broke the news to me.
Have a nice day!
Nice to meet you!
That’s a really nice restaurant.
He plans to start walking more when the weather gets nicer.
Red got his nickname because of his red hair.
We always use the nickname Beth for our daughter Elizabeth.
|nightingale – bülbül|
The nightingale is also the object of empathy and praise within the poem.
|nightmare – kabus -(gece kısrağı)|
The whole journey was a nightmare – we lost our luggage and we arrived two days late.
|nonsense : ridiculous|
This report is nonsense and nothing but a waste of paper and waste of time.
It’s a nonsense to say that he’s too old for the job.
Most of the country’s population is concentrated in the north.
The wind is coming from the north.
The needle on a compass always points to magnetic north.
I had a sore throat and a runny nose (= liquid coming out of the nose).
Come on now, stop crying and blow your nose.
|not only but also|
I’ve taught English not only in the U.S., but also in other countries.
She’s not only beautiful, but also very smart.
He not only ate the pizza, but also drank the soda.
Not only does he play guitar, but he also writes his own songs.
Not only did she fail the course, but she also dropped out of college.
Not only will you learn grammar, you’ll also put it into practice.
|notice : farkına varmak ve DUYURU|
People should not hesitate to contact the police if they’ve noticed anyone acting suspiciously.
I noticed that most academics were writing papers during the summer.
Luckily, I’d noticed where you left the car.
Mrs Shedden noticed a bird sitting on the garage roof.
(a board, piece of paper, etc. containing) information or instructions:
There was a large notice on the wall saying “No Parking”.
I saw a notice in the paper announcing their marriage.
to provide people or living things with food in order to make them grow and keep them healthy:
Children need plenty of good fresh food to nourish them.
She looks happy and well nourished.
This cream is supposed to help nourish your skin.
Young babies obtain all the nourishment they need from their mother’s milk.
He’s written a history of the romantic novel, from Pamela to the present day.
Have you read any of Jane Austen’s novels?
His latest novel is selling really well.
*new and original, not like anything seen before:
a novel idea/suggestion
Keeping a sheep in the garden is a novel way of keeping the grass short!
Nowadays means at the present time, in contrast with the past.
Nowadays it’s acceptable for women to be ambitious. But it wasn’t then.
I don’t see much of Tony nowadays.
You use now that to give an explanation of a new situation:
Now that I live only a few blocks from work, I walk to work and enjoy it.
Now that we have a baby, we seldom get the chance to go to the cinema.
|no matter how|
No matter how bad the situation there always seems to be a funny side to it.
A nurse is a person whose job is to care for people who are ill.
She had spent 29 years as a nurse.
Patients were dying because of an acute shortage of nurses.
The alphabet and letter shapes were introduced in nursery school.
He cracked (open) the nuts with his hands.
“I’m allergic to nuts.” “So is my brother.”
Squirrels store (up) nuts for the winter.
|nutrient : besin|
any substance that plants or animals need in order to live and grow:
It’s good soil – full of nutrients.
A healthy diet should provide all your essential nutrients.
Nutrition is the process of taking food into the body and absorbing the nutrients in those foods.
There are alternative sources of nutrition to animal meat.
As in all experimental sciences, we still do not know everything about nutrition.
|oak : meşe ağacı|
The path goes through an ancient oak wood.
They found shelter from the storm under a large oak tree.
The floors in their home are made from oak.
|oasis (plural -oases)|
Oasis is a place in a desert where there is water and therefore plants and trees and sometimes a village or town.
|obey ≠ break rules|
The soldiers refused to obey the orders.
You must obey the rules.
You must not break the rules.
We objected to his unreasonable demands.
I have no objections, if you want to stay an extra day.
If something is obligatory, you must do it because of a rule or law, etc.:
The medical examination before you start work is obligatory.
The statute made it obligatory for all healthy males between 14 and 60 to work.
|obvious : clear|
easy to see, recognize, or understand:
There is no obvious solution.
It’s obvious that she doesn’t like him.
|occur : happen|
If any of these symptoms occur while you are taking the medication, consult your doctor immediately.
Many suicides occur in prisons.
My letter of protest was just a drop in the ocean.
We have a clear view of the ocean from our hotel window.
These mysterious creatures live at the bottom of the ocean.
|occupied : busy|
The bathroom’s occupied – I think John’s in there.
The house hasn’t been occupied by anyone for a few months.
An octopus is a soft sea creature with eight long arms called tentacles which it uses to catch food.
|odd : strange : weird|
That’s odd – I’m sure I put my keys in this drawer and yet they’re not here.
It’s odd that no one’s seen him.
It must be odd to go back to your home town after forty years away.
I had a very odd dream about you last night.
I find him really odd – I can’t figure him out at all.
Her mother was an odd woman.
I’m very sorry if I’ve offended you.
I think she was offended that she hadn’t been invited to the party.
He looked offended when you called him middle-aged.
I really didn’t mean to offend her – I just said it unthinkingly.
I’m sorry if I offended you – I didn’t mean any harm.
upset and angry, often because someone has been rude:
Many staff members were deeply offended by his email.
I knew that Piers would be deeply offended.
I get very offended when he talks to me like that.
He offered her a trip to Australia but she turned it/him down.
She was offered a job in Paris.
My father’s offered to take us to the airport.
You should always check your oil, water and tyres before taking your car on a long trip.
Serve the pasta hot with a drizzle of olive oil.
The walls are covered in oil paintings.
The oil company was found guilty on ten counts of pollution, and was punished with a $250 million fine.
used to show that you agree with someone or give permission for someone to do something : OKEY
|old ≠ young|
We’re all getting older.
I was shocked by how old he looked.
I’m too old to be out in the clubs every night.
The oil which is extracted from olives is used for cooking.
These organic olives are packaged in recycled glass containers.
I always cry when I’m chopping onions.
Fry the onion and garlic for about two minutes.
I was the only person on the train.
Is this really the only way to do it?
Rita was the only person to complain.
I was only trying to help.
|open ≠ close|
I keep the bedroom door open in case the children call for me in the night.
The supermarket is open till 8.00 p.m.
The road is open now, but it is often blocked by snow in the winter.
I’m going to open an account with another bank.
Could you open the window, please?
You can open your eyes now – here’s your present.
What’s your opinion about/on the matter?
He didn’t express/give an opinion on the matter.
What’s your opinion on Britain joining the Euro?
Who, in your opinion, is the best candidate for the job?
The best option would be to cancel the trip altogether.
The committee decided in favour of the cheapest option.
You need to think very carefully about the various options.
I was never given the opportunity of going to college.
The exhibition is a unique opportunity to see her later work.
An ankle injury meant she missed the opportunity to run in the qualifying heat.
Please contact us at the earliest opportunity (= as soon as possible).
He goes fishing at every opportunity (= as often as possible).
I used to love going out dancing, but I don’t get much opportunity now.
An optimist is someone who is hopeful about the future.
Optimists still believe we can resolve the problem without going to war.
He cut the orange into quarters.
Oranges are a good source of Vitamin C.
It is almost impossible to find an orange in Havana.
We had toast and orange juice for breakfast.
“Oriental” means generally “eastern”. It is a traditional designation (especially when capitalized) for anything belonging to the Orient or “East” (for Asia), and especially of its Eastern culture
of, from, or characteristic of Asia, especially East Asia.
a child whose parents are both dead
The civil war is making orphans of many children.
The war has left thousands of children as orphans.
An ostrich is a very large African bird that cannot fly.
You do need jargon sometimes. Otherwise, there are times when people don’t take you seriously.
I’d better write it down, otherwise I’ll forget it.
Call home, otherwise your parents will start to worry.
|outcome : result|
a result or effect of an action, situation, etc.:
It’s too early to predict the outcome of the meeting / election.
Our main aim is to achieve a satisfactory outcome for both parties.
the main shape or edge of something, without any details:
She drew the outline of the boat and then coloured it in.
If you read the minutes of the meeting, they’ll give you a broad outline of what was discussed.
Some novelists start by writing an outline (= plan of the main points of the story).
|out of order|
not operating because it is broken:
I’m afraid we have to walk up the stairs – the elevator is out of order.
|out of the question: impossible|
A trip to New Zealand is out of the question this year.
She has an outgoing personality.
Sherry is a very outgoing person.
We’re looking for someone with an outgoing personality.
(especially in the past) a person who has broken the law and who lives separately from the other parts of society because they want to escape legal punishment: haydut
Robin Hood was an outlaw who lived in the forest and stole from the rich to give to the poor.
to make something illegal or unacceptable: men etmek
The new law will outlaw smoking in public places.
It was a sunny day outside.
Since it’s such a nice day, let’s eat/sit/go outside.
Come indoors, it’s cold outside.
The outside of the house needs painting.
the areas that form the edge of a town or city:
The factory is in/on the outskirts of İstanbul.
They live on the outskirts of Paris.
the difference between countryside and outskirts is that countryside is a rural landscape while outskirts is ; the edges or areas around a city or town.
Dr. Gotami is an outstanding American woman. Outstanding !!!
An oven is a device for cooking that is like a box with a door. You heat it and cook food inside it.
Put the onions and ginger in the oven and let them roast for thirty minutes.
|over and over|
I read the article over and over till it made sense.
|overcast : cloudy|
If it is overcast, or if the sky or the day is overcast, the sky is completely covered with cloud and there is not much light.
For three days it was overcast.
The weather forecast is for showers and overcast skies.
It was a cold, windy, overcast afternoon in Washington.
If you overcome a problem or a feeling, you successfully deal with it and control it. to defeat or succeed in controlling or dealing with something
Molly had fought and overcome her fear of flying.
Find a way to overcome your difficulties.
Eventually Suzan managed to overcome her shyness in class.
|overhear: kulak misafiri olmak|
I overheard a very funny conversation on the bus this morning.
I’m sorry, I couldn’t help overhearing.
I missed the train this morning because I overslept again.
(to sleep for longer than you intended to and so wake up late:)
If something is overwhelming, it affects you very strongly, and you do not know how to deal with it.
The task won’t feel so overwhelming if you break it down into small, easy-to-accomplish steps.
She felt an overwhelming desire to have another child.
I owe Janet $50.
We still owe $1,000 on our car (= we still need to pay $1,000 before we own our car).
I owe you a drink for helping me move.
I think you owe (= should give) me an explanation/apology.
|owl – baykuş|
The castle also houses one of the largest collections of owls in the world.
Bring your own equipment.
Every dance has its own rhythm.
We encourage students to develop their own ideas.
It’s your own fault for leaving the window open.
a bull (= male cow) that has had its reproductive organs removed, used in the past for pulling heavy things on farms, or, more generally, any adult of the cattle family
Air is composed mainly of nitrogen and oxygen.
Deep-sea divers carry cylinders of oxygen on their backs.
Mountain climbers use oxygen when they reach higher altitudes.
Plants are the main source of atmospheric oxygen.
Some kinds of oyster are commonly consumed by humans, cooked or raw.
Ozone is a colourless gas which is a form of oxygen.
There is a layer of ozone high above the earth’s surface.
Ozone is best known for its role in screening the Earth from harmful ultraviolet rays from the Sun.
What they find could provide clues to what might happen worldwide if ozone depletion continues.
A padlock is a lock which is used for fastening two things together. It consists of a block of metal with a U-shaped bar attached to it. One end of the bar is released by turning a key in the lock.
They had put a padlock on the door of his flat.
The article appeared on the front page of the New York Times.
I’d like you to look at the diagram on page 187.
Now turn the page, please, and start work on Exercise 2.
be on the same page
to have the same ideas as someone else:
Everyone in the office has to be on the same page about what our top priorities are.
To help ease the pain, heat can be applied to the area with a hot water bottle.
I felt a sharp pain in my lower back.
NO PAIN NO GAIN…
|painful : sore|
It was painful to listen to his excuses.
A painkiller is a drug which reduces or stops physical pain.
I’ve been painting all morning.
All these pictures were painted by local artists.
She painted her nails bright red.
We need some white paint for the kitchen.
The walls are covered in oil paintings.
Any painting by Van Gogh is worth a fortune.
The painting portrays a beautiful young woman in a blue dress.
I didn’t realize we had to write each answer on a new sheet of paper.
The parcel had only been loosely wrapped, and the paper had come off.
Have you got a scrap of paper I could write on?
He rifled through the papers on the desk, but couldn’t find the photographs.
The leaflets will be printed on recycled paper.
The school provides paper towels for the children to dry their hands on.
|paradise ≠ hell|
They believe they’ll go to Paradise after they die.
His idea of paradise is to spend the day lying on the beach.
This mall is a shopper’s paradise.
I’m going to meet Richard’s parents for the first time this weekend.
Children need lots of encouragement from their parents.
His parents live in New York.
Children under 14 should be accompanied by a parent. (the father or mother of a person)
I left my car in the mall parking lot.
a notice telling a driver of a fine imposed on them for parking illegally, typically written by a traffic warden and attached to a car windscreen.
I got a parking ticket this afternoon.
She used to keep a parrot in a cage.
Lara liked the parrots at the zoo.
She’s been trying to pass her driving test for six years and she’s finally succeeded.
I passed him on the stairs this morning.
Could you pass the salt please?
Time seems to pass (by) so slowly when you’re bored.
|pass away : die|
She’s terribly upset because her father passed away last week.
|pass out : faint|
I was hit on the head and passed out.
No-one could use the computer unless they had a password.
You can’t gain access to the computer system without entering your password.
Professor Johnson was always there for paternal advice.
He’s very paternal with the baby.
My paternal grandparents (= my father’s parents) were Irish.
complaining or becoming annoyed:
You have to have such a lot of patience when you’re dealing with kids.
In the end I lost my patience and shouted at her.
He’s a good teacher, but he doesn’t have much patience with the slower pupils.
Making small-scale models takes/requires a great deal of patience.
Their youngest son was beginning to try my patience (= annoy me).
Patience – they’ll be here soon!
I’m a patient of Dr Stephens; please could I make an appointment to see her?
Be patient with her – she’s very young.
How much did you pay for the tickets?
I pay my taxes.
Would you prefer to pay with/by cash, cheque, or credit card?
Did Linda pay you for looking after her cats while she was away?
Ordinarily, we send a reminder about a month before payment is required.
I’ve had a letter from the tax authorities concerning my tax payments.
|peace ≠ war|
There’ll be no peace until she gets what she wants.
He says he’s at peace when he’s walking in the mountains.
Would you like peaches and cream for dessert?
My pen seems to be running out of ink – I need a refill.
She sat, pen in hand , searching for the right words.
Please write in ink, not in pencil.
It’s in pencil, so you can rub it out if you need to.
My pencil is blunt – I’ll have to sharpen it.
If you spot any mistakes in the article just mark them with a pencil.
Many people never do any exercise.
We’ve invited 30 people to our party.
The president has lost the support of the people.
There was a queue of people waiting patiently for the bus to arrive.
The pasta was served in a cream sauce spiked with black pepper.
Taste the soup and adjust the seasoning, adding more salt or pepper as desired.
Shall I grind a little black pepper over your pizza?
Perhaps it’ll be warmer tomorrow.
He hasn’t written to me recently – perhaps he’s lost my address.
Perhaps the most important question has not been asked.
I’d guess that she’s in her forties – 45 perhaps.
You will need permission from your parents to go on the trip.
Official permission has been granted for more building near the river.
The authorities have refused permission for the demonstration to take place.
Has the director given you permission to do that?
They did the work without permission and without an official budget.
Don’t give permission to websites to install programs or files on your PC.
|permit : allow : let|
The regulations do not permit much flexibility.
The prison authorities permit visiting only once a month.
The security system will not permit you to enter without the correct password.
|persist : insist|
If an unpleasant feeling or situation persists, it continues to exist:
If the pain persists, consult a doctor.
to try to do or continue doing something in a determined but often unreasonable way:
If he persists in asking awkward questions, then send him to the boss.
plural people or formal persons
Who was the first person to swim the English Channel?
A meal at the restaurant costs about $70 for two people.
formal Four persons have been charged with the murder.
She’s an extremely kind person.
There was a fashion for keeping reptiles as pets.
We are concerned with the physical and psychological well-being of our employees.
He hates physical contact of any sort – he doesn’t even like to shake your hand.
There was nothing unusual about her physical appearance.
She tries to keep herself in good physical condition.
If the weather’s nice we could have a picnic in the park.
There were several families picnicking on the river bank.
Someone pickpocketed my wallet.
He was pickpocketed at the carnival.
a thief who steals things out of pockets or bags, esp. in a crowd
Numerous pigeons fed on cereals scattered by passers-by.
It must be Jack again, shooting pigeons.
I fell asleep as soon as my head hit the pillow.
She used to hide her diary under her pillow.
A spider landed on her pillow and she screamed.
The campsite is set in the middle of a pine forest.
I love the smell of pine trees.
I like eating pineapple for breakfast.
The pineapple plant looks like a bush.
She was wearing a vivid pink shirt.
Prawns are grey when they’re raw, and turn pink when they’re cooked.
She looks familiar but I can’t place her – did she use to work here?
She placed her name on the list of volunteers.
There’s No Place Like Home..
Her garden was a cool pleasant place to sit.
What was the name of that place we drove through on the way to New York?
They decided to go to a pizza place.
There are several places of interest to visit in the area.
It’s important to feel comfortable in your place of work.
|plane : aircraft: airplane|
We arrived at the airport just in time to catch the plane.
As the plane touched the ground, there was a massive jolt and we were thrown forwards.
She looked up as a plane roared overhead.
The plane climbed quickly to a height of 30 000 feet.
The plane circled for an hour before receiving permission to land.
Mercury is the smallest of all the planets.
Is there life on other planets?
Is it too late to repair the damage we have done to our planet?
Might there be intelligent life on other planets?
There’s still lots of food on your plate.
He’s eaten a whole plate of french fries.
I don’t care about fashion, I dress how I please.
Please remember to close the windows before you leave.
I only got married to please my parents.
|pleased : happy|
I’m pleased to hear you’re feeling better.
Are you pleased about Orhan’s promotion?
‘Sheep’ remains the same in the plural.
What’s the plural of ‘mouse’?
The keys are in my jacket pocket.
One of the men suddenly produced a knife from his pocket.
There are no pockets in these trousers.
I’ve got my hands in my pockets to keep them warm.
My mum gives me 50 Euro a week pocket money.
My father can still recite the poems he learned off by heart at school.
He composed this poem for his wife.
He gave a beautiful recitation of some poems by Blake.
I decided to write a poem about how I felt.
This poem was originally written in French.
Orhan Veli is one of Turkey’s most famous poets.
She liked poetry and music.
Baudelaire’s poetry is magnificent.
Something that is pointless has no purpose, and it is a waste of time doing it:
This is a pointless exercise.
It seemed pointless to continue.
(informal) It’s pointless arguing with him.
|polite : kind|
He was too polite to point out my mistake.
|poor ≠ rich|
Most of the world’s poorest countries are in Africa.
He came from a poor immigrant family.
Look at that dog – the poor thing only has three legs.
Poor chap.. Poor NCO..
When going to the cinema he makes his own popcorn at home because it is so overpriced.
Suppose these stars were divided up among the world’s total population of 6 billion people.
Is it possible to see him tonight?
Is it possible to buy tickets in advance? (önceden)
We need to send that letter off as soon as possible. (asap)
Is there any possibility of selling his car?
Is there any possibility (that) you could pick me up from the station?
We’re having a meeting next week to talk about the possibility of merging the two companies.
Could you peel the potatoes for me, please?
I had a baked potato for lunch, which was very filling.
Chips are made of potato – surely you know that!
Practice makes perfect.
Officially, Robert’s in charge, but in practice Hannah runs the office.
I can’t see how your plan is going to work in practice.
His written French is very good but he needs to practise speaking it.
She practises the violin every day.
She has a lot of interesting ideas, but they’re not very practical.
Heavy boots aren’t very practical for running.
She glued her boss’s cup and saucer together as a practical joke.
Praying five times a day is considered the second most important of Islam’s five pillars, after professing that there is no god worthy of worship but God and that the Prophet Mohammed is God’s messenger.
Let us pray for the victims of this terrible disaster.
We’ve been praying to God that your son will make a complete recovery.
Muslims are ordered to pray five times a day at specific times; before sunrise, midafternoon, late afternoon, sunset and at night.
Praying 5 times a day keeps the devil/hell away.
Do you prefer hot or cold tea?
I prefer red apple to white.
He prefers watching football to playing it.
I’d prefer not to discuss this issue.
Would you prefer to pay by cash, cheque, or credit card?
She’s five and a half months pregnant.
My sister is pregnant with twins.
Foreign observers were present at the elections.
The memory of her brother’s death is still present in her mind.
At the present time we have no explanation for this.
We’ll present the information using a chart.
Our manager is due to present the report at the end of the month.
You must present your passport to the customs officer.
They gave me theatre tickets as a present.
President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of Turkey suffered the biggest defeat of his political career on Sunday as his candiate for Istanbul mayor conceded defeat in a repeat election.
The country’s president is seeking to mend relations with the United States.
She is Ireland’s first woman president.
Boris Yeltsin was Russia’s first democratically elected president.
She’s got such a pretty daughter.
I’m pretty sure it was her.
I’ve got a pretty good idea of how to get there.
The price of oil has risen sharply.
House prices have been falling.
We thought they were asking a very high/low price.
a school for children between 5 and 11 years old..
My first/top priority is to find somewhere to live.
We need to establish a new set of priorities.
The children are our first priority.
List your tasks in order of priority (=most important first).
Right now, the environment is a high priority.
Controlling spending is his top priority.
|prison : jail|
The life behind prison bars should be tough.
Prisoners climbed onto the prison roof to protest the conditions inside the prison.
|prisoner of war: POW|
a member of the armed forces who has been caught by enemy forces during a war.
I caught him looking through my private papers.
Jamie wants to speak to me in private.
The sign on the gate said “Private Property – Keep Out.”
Let’s go somewhere private so we can talk freely.
a person in the military of the lowest rank, below a corporal – nefer,er
This decision may delay the process of European unification.
Repairing damaged nerves is a very delicate process.
Visa applications take 28 days to process.
Graying hair is part of the aging process.
We are still in the process of redecorating the house (= working to decorate it).
Collecting the data is a slow process.
He promised faithfully to call me every week.
The government have promised that they’ll reduce taxes.
Promise me (that) you won’t tell him.
Her parents promised her a new car if she passed her exams.
“When I’ve got some time I’ll show you everything.” “Promises, promises!”
A Promise Is a Promise.. Promises, promises!
Your promotion to Senior Editor is now official.
She got a promotion last year.
There was a promotion in the supermarket and they were giving away free glasses of wine.
The prophet Muhammad died in Medina in 632.
The Kaaba, the cube-shaped building and located in Mecca, Saudi Arabia and, was built by the prophet Abraham and his son Ishmael.
I bear witness that there is no god but God. And I bear witness that Prophet Muhammad is His servant and His messenger.
I was so proud that my son had been chosen for the national team.
I’m very proud to have been involved in this project.
You must be very proud of your son.
This booklet provides useful information about local services.
All meals are provided at no additional cost.
A healthy diet should provide all your essential nutrients.
The company provides medical benefits to all employees.
The hotel provides a shoe-cleaning service and free parking for hotel guests.
You provide something for someone:
We provide information for parents.
You provide someone with something:
We provide parents with information.
✗Don’t say: We provide parents information.
|provided / providing that|
provided / providing that : as long as/ so long as
You can stay here as long as you keep quiet.
Provided/Providing (that) the bills are paid, tenants will not be evicted.
We can win the championship, providing we avoid bad injuries.
You can take this seat, providing / provided that / as long as no one has reserved it.
You can go out now providing / provided that / as long as you finish your homework first.
a place, especially in Great Britain or Ireland, where alcoholic drinks can be bought and drunk and where food is often available:
Do you want to go to (informal go down) the pub after work?
She was in England for the publication of her new book.
He spent his holiday writing reviews for publication.
There has been a delay in the book’s publication.
|pull ≠ push|
Could you help me move this bookcase over there? You pull and I’ll push.
He pulled the chair away from the desk.
He pulled the heavy box across the floor to the door.
He pulled the door open.
The car was pulling a caravan.
The sun was so strong we had to pull down the blinds.
She pulled out the drawer.
|pull leg : joke|
Is it really your car or are you pulling my leg?
a piece of clothing that is usually made of a warm material such as wool, has long sleeves, and is worn over the top part of the body and is put on by pulling it over your head.
Just pull over here, and I’ll get out and walk the rest of the way.
He punished the class by giving them extra work.
The oil company was punished with a $250 million fine.
Many people think that the death penalty is too severe a punishment for any crime.
|push ≠ pull|
Can you help me move this table? You push and I’ll pull.
The window sticks – you have to push hard to open it.
He helped me push my car off the road.
He pushed his plate away from him, refusing to eat any more.
She pushed her hair out of her eyes.
I tried to push the door open but it was stuck.
It isn’t clear whether he fell off the balcony or was pushed.
To turn the television on, you just push (= press) this button.
Where have you put the keys?
Put your clothes in the cupboard.
He put salt into the sugar bowl by mistake.
She put her bag on the table.
He took off his uniform and put on a sweater and trousers.
I’ll have to put my glasses on; I can’t read the sign from here.
Put your shoes on.