Vocabularies Q-Z – PART 2

qualitative research

a type of market research that aims to find out people’s opinions and feelings rather than information that can easily be shown in numbers:

If you want to understand the perspective of somebody else, you will first need to employ qualitative research methods.



They had a bitter quarrel about/over some money three years ago and they haven’t spoken to each other since.
What did you quarrel about/over?
She quarrelled with everyone in the village.
A big family quarrel left Judith and me in tears.


He cut the orange into quarters.
Under a quarter of people questioned said that they were happily married.
I waited a quarter of an hour and then went home.
It was a quarter to six when I left.
I’ll meet you at a quarter past five.

an area of a town where a particular group of people live or work or where a particular activity happens:

This is the bustling commercial quarter of the city.

in the US and Canada, a coin worth 25 cents.


Would all those in favour please raise their hands?
She raised her gun, took aim and fired.
The government plan to raise taxes.
Her answers raised doubts/fears/suspicions in my mind.
This discussion has raised many important issues/problems.

to take care of a person, or an animal or plant, until they are completely grown:

Her parents died when she was a baby and she was raised by her grandparents.
The lambs had to be raised by hand (= fed milk by people) when their mother died.


The security guards carried out random checks on people entering the building.
He was stopped at the border in a random check.
The company has introduced random drug testing of its employees.
He looked at a random selection of the files.
He believes the police should be able to carry out random breath tests.

informal strange, unusual, or unexpected

She’s great – she’s just so random!


The people I interviewed were chosen randomly.
The books were randomly arranged on the shelves.
Interviewees were chosen randomly.
The candidates were randomly selected by a computer.


The museum is full of rare and precious treasures.
It’s very rare to find someone who combines such qualities.
It is very rare for her to miss a day at school.
The law prevents the export of rare birds.
The palace library contains some of the rarest books in Europe.


She very rarely complains.
This method is rarely used in modern laboratories.
She is rarely wrong.
These geese are rarely found on inland waters.
We rarely see each other now.
I rarely have time to read a newspaper.


How did Wilson react to your idea?
He reacted angrily to the suggestion that he had lied.
She reacted very badly (=was very upset) when her parents split up.
You have to react quickly to circumstances.


to speak angrily to someone because you disapprove of what they have said or done:

I was rebuked by my manager for being late.
He was publicly rebuked for his involvement in the scandal.


You don’t happen to recall his name, do you?
I don’t recall seeing any cars parked outside.
I seem to recall I’ve met him before somewhere.
I can’t recall who gave me the information.
“As I recall,” he said with some irritation, “you still owe me €150.”
Can you recall what happened last night?


Baking a cake isn’t difficult – it’s just a matter of following the recipe.
I never follow recipes exactly when I cook – I just use them as rough guides.
I’m not a great cook, but I can follow a recipe pretty well.
This soup is really good – you must give me the recipe.


Winston is recuperating from a sprained ankle.
We’ve recuperated our losses.
Tina spent nine months of recuperating.
It was a very difficult birth, and Mary is now recuperating at home with the baby.
She spent a month in the country recuperating from/after the operation.

refer to

We agreed never to refer to the matter again.
Although she didn’t mention any names, everyone knew who she was referring to.
He likes to be referred to as ‘Doctor Khee’.
He gave the speech without referring to his notes.
When I give my presentation, I will probably have to refer to my notes.


He saw himself reflected in the water/mirror/shop window.
She could see her face reflected in the car’s windshield.
The statistics reflect a change in people’s spending habits.
The poll results reflect widespread anxiety about the economy.

refuge  /refyüc/

Hundreds of dissidents are seeking refuge in the US embassy.
These people are seeking/taking refuge from persecution.
The climbers slept in a mountain refuge.
She had fled from her violent husband to a women’s refuge.

refugee /refyüci/

Thousands of refugees fled across the border.
Many refugees have arrived at the border without passports.
We have only a small amount of food and clothing to deal out to each refugee.


The prison service should try to rehabilitate prisoners so that they can lead normal lives when they leave prison.
Physiotherapy is part of rehabilitating accident victims.
We need to replace or rehabilitate the bridge.
The aim is to rehabilitate the prisoners so that they can lead productive lives when they are released.


The dam was reinforced with 20,000 sandbags.
The sea wall at Southend is being reinforced with tons of cement.
The pockets on my jeans are reinforced with double stitching.
The final technical report into the accident reinforces the findings of initial investigations.
His behaviour merely reinforced my dislike of him.


The harbour walls need urgent reinforcement.
The bridge needs some structural reinforcement.


Please remain seated until all the lights are on.
The doctor ordered him to remain in bed for a few days.
The judge directed the defendant to remain silent.
It remains a secret.


unusual or surprising and therefore deserving attention or praise
She has made remarkable progress.
Meeting you here in Rome is a remarkable coincidence.
We witnessed a remarkable chain of events in eastern Europe in 1989.


The best remedy for grief is hard work.
Love is a great remedy for unhappiness.
The problems in our schools do not have a simple remedy.
The herb is used as a folk remedy (=a traditional medicine, rather than one a doctor gives you) for a baby’s teething pains.


I need to renew my passport this year.
The window frames need to be renewed.
To renew your license, contact the Department of Motor Vehicles.
It is wise to renew your water filter every month, even though it may seem to be working satisfactorily.
Every year I renew my membership of the sports club.
I forgot to renew my season ticket.


There is a need for further research to replicate these findings.
This has not been the usual clinical experience, and these results have not been replicated.

As a verb, replicate means to reproduce something, like research results or a piece of fine art. The noun replicate means something that has been reproduced, and the adjective replicate refers to the quality of being a reproduction. Replicates may not be exact copies of the original, in the way that duplicates are.


We called the insurance company to report the theft.
The assassination was reported in all the newspapers.
I want you to report (to me) on progress (= on what you have done) every Friday.
He was reported missing in action.
Can you give us a report on what happened at the meeting?


They are carrying out/conducting/doing some fascinating research into/on the language of dolphins.
He has dedicated his life to scientific research.
She’s researching into possible cures for AIDS.
Journalists were frantically researching the new prime minister’s background, family, and interests.


This book is an indispensable resource for researchers.
Finding a cure for cancer is one of the biggest challenges facing medical researchers.
The researchers surveyed the attitudes of 2500 college students.


She bitterly resented her father’s new wife.
He resents having to explain his work to other people.
She resented being treated like a child.
I resented having to work such long hours.
Alex deeply resented the fact that Carol didn’t trust him.


unwilling to express your emotions or talk about your problems

Ellen was a shy, reserved girl.
English people have a reputation for being very reserved.
That shy reserved young man had turned into a confident adult.


The noise of the bell resonated through the building. (yankılanmak)

to continue to have a powerful effect or value:

The significance of those great stories resonates down the centuries.


This book is an indispensable resource for researchers.
The library was a valuable resource, and he frequently made use of it.
The school must be properly resourced with musical instruments and audio equipment.
The government doesn’t have the resources to hire the number of teachers needed.
The country has few energy resources of its own.
Swaziland is rich in natural resources.


Dave didn’t respond to any of her emails.
She has responded well to treatment.
To every question, he responded, “I don’t know.”
I asked her what the time was, but she didn’t respond.


Having small children really restricts your social life.
The government passed a law to restrict the sale of guns.
The Government has recently restricted the right of council tenants to buy their own homes.


Building in this area of town is restricted.
Membership is restricted to (= it is only for) chief executive officers.
Wellington Barracks is a restricted area and anyone who enters should have identification.


The president urged other countries to lift the trade restrictions.
At the turn of the century, Congress imposed/placed a height restriction of 13 stories on all buildings in Washington.
There are speed restrictions on this part of the road.
New restrictions have been placed on the purchase of guns.


The UN will vote on the retention of sanctions against Iraq.
The retention of old technology has slowed the company’s growth.

the ability to keep something in your memory
I have a real problem with retention of information

the ability of a company to keep its employees and stop them from going to work somewhere else:
The study found that mentoring programs have a positive impact on teachers and their retention.
Officials are focusing on job creation, not job retention.


He was jailed for revealing secrets to the Russians.
Her biography revealed that she was not as rich as everyone thought.
He would not reveal where he had hidden her chocolate eggs.
X-rays revealed that my ribs had been cracked but not broken.
He revealed that he had been in prison twice before.
Doctors are not allowed to reveal confidential information.


He was arrested for taking part in revolutionary activities.
His writings influenced political thinking during the revolutionary war.

completely new and having a great effect:
Penicillin was a revolutionary drug.
The 20th century brought about revolutionary changes in our lifestyles.
Computers have brought revolutionary changes to publishing.
The new cancer drug is a revolutionary breakthrough.


The police offered a reward for any information about the robbery.
The company rewarded him for his years of service with a grand farewell party and several presents.
Managers who innovate and focus on economic profit will be rewarded.
The school has a system of rewards and punishments to encourage good behavior.
Parents often give their children rewards for passing exams.
A reward of $20,000 has been offered.


He bought her a diamond/emerald, etc. ring (= a ring with a jewel attached to it).
The game involved throwing metal rings over a stick.
She sat there nervously twisting the ring around on her finger.

The children sat in a ring around the teacher.
I’ll give you a ring tomorrow.
There’s been an accident – can you ring for an ambulance?
There was a ring at the door.
I rang the bell but nobody came to the door.
My head is/My ears are still ringing (= are full of a ringing noise) from the sound of the military band.

to surround something:
Armed police ringed the hijacked plane.
Thousands of people ringed the court building to demand the release of Mr Cox.
The harbour is dangerous – it’s ringed by/with rocks and reefs.

to draw a circle around something:
Students should ring the correct answers in pencil.

ring a bell

The name rang a bell but I couldn’t remember where I had heard it before.
No, I’m sorry, that description doesn’t ring any bells with me.


The balloon rose gently (up) into the air.
At 6 a.m. we watched the sunrise (= appear and move upwards in the sky).
New buildings are rising (= being built) throughout the city.
She rose from her chair to welcome us.
My grandfather rises at five every morning to do his exercises.
Inflation is rising at/by 2.1 percent a month.
I think you should ask the boss for a rise.



Though he was over seventy, he was still robust and active.
He looks robust and healthy enough.
Exports will continue to be bolstered by the robust economy.


They tied a rope around my waist and pulled me up.
A sailor threw a rope ashore and we tied the boat to a post.
Mountaineers rope themselves together for safety.


Her hands were rough from hard work.
It was a rough mountain road, full of stones and huge holes.

Tired old hands

Could you give me a rough idea what time you’ll be home?
She made a rough estimate/calculation of the likely cost.

He’s had a rough time/month/year, what with the divorce and then his father dying.
It must be rough to have two kids and nowhere to live.

rule of law

a set of laws that people in a society must obey:
Everyone is subject to the rule of law.
We have to follow the rule of law.
Turkey has ranked 109th in the WJP Rule of Law Index 2019, marking a degrade of eight ranks when compared to 2018.


I’ve been rushing (about/around) all day trying to get everything done.
I rushed up the stairs/to the office/to find a phone.
Suddenly the door burst open and police officers carrying guns rushed in.
I’m sorry to rush you, but we need a decision by Friday.
He was rushing out of his office in order to go to a meeting.
There’s no need to rush – we have plenty of time.


Many nations have imposed sanctions on the country because of its attacks on its own people.
Trade/economic sanctions will only be lifted (= stopped) when the aggressor nation withdraws its troops.
The United Nations is considering new economic sanctions.
International sanctions were imposed on Iraq after it invaded Kuwait in 1990.
Due to strict sanctions, the country is unable to import the medicines it needs.
Washington has since refused to lift sanctions.



used to describe a business or system that is able to grow or to be made larger:
used to describe a system that can be made larger, for example by adding extra hardware, or deal with extra work without affecting its performance:
The supercomputing system combines true scalable performance with high production
To receive the funding they will have to demonstrate that their idea is scalable from school level to the state level.
We needed a computer system that was scalable and that could keep up with our growing number of users.


I don’t regret my decision to start a new life, in a new country. It’s scary, but it’s also really exciting.
I had a really scary dream last night.
She didn’t like the film. It was too scary for her.
She’s a scary woman.
I’ve always found him a bit scary.


She won a scholarship to Iowa State University.
We’re very proud of the five students from this school who were awarded scholarships.
He got/won a scholarship to Harvard.


to make someone feel attracted to you and want to have sex with you, often someone younger or less experienced:
He felt that she was trying to seduce him.
The professor was sacked for seducing female students.

to persuade or cause someone to do something that they would not usually consider doing by being very attractive and difficult to refuse:
I wouldn’t normally stay in a hotel like this, but I was seduced by the fabulous location.
They were seduced into buying the washing machine by the offer of a free flight.


Every training session starts with a series of exercises.
His talk was followed by a question and answer session.
We had a special training session yesterday.
The 21-year-old runner twisted his ankle in a training session last Friday.


She was uncomfortably aware of her son’s developing sexuality.
Gradually he came to understand and accept his own sexuality.
The physical expression of female sexuality is her monthly period and its triumph lies in her giving birth.


to (cause something or someone to) move or change from one position or direction to another, especially slightly:
She shifted (her weight) uneasily from one foot to the other.
The wind is expected to shift (to the east) tomorrow.

(of an idea, opinion, etc.) to change:

Media attention has shifted recently onto environmental issues.
In cars that are automatics, you don’t have to bother with shifting (changing) gears.

a group of workers who do a job for a period of time during the day or night, or the period of time itself:
As the night shift leave/leaves, the day shift arrive/arrives.
Are you on the night shift or the day shift? (= Do you work during the night period or the day period?)
I’m working the day shift this month.
The night shift is finished at 7 a.m

a change in position or direction:
a shift in the wind/temperature
The shift in the balance of power in the region has had far-reaching consequences.
There has been a dramatic shift in public opinion towards peaceful negotiations.


Her mother’s death came as a great shock – it was so unexpected.
It was such a loud crash – it gave me/I got quite a shock.
It was a shock to see her looking so ill.
Her resignation came as quite a shock.

The news of the accident shocked the family deeply.


He was shocked to discover that he had no money left in his account.


There were some very shocking pictures of the fighting on the news last night.
It’s shocking that hospitals can deny help to older people.


I’m worried about washing that shirt in case it shrinks.
Treatment can shrink a tumour.
The economy is expected to shrink slightly.
In the past decade, the number of employees has shrunk 30%.
Your sweater will shrink if you wash it at too high a temperature.
The company’s profits have shrunk from $5.5 million to $1.25 million.
The productivity improvements have shrunk our costs by 25 percent.


I have four siblings: three brothers and a sister.
There was great sibling rivalry (= competition) between Peter and his brother.
Most young smokers are influenced by their friends’ and older siblings’ smoking habits.


The siege lasted almost four months.
The castle was under siege for months.
That whole weekend at Cannes, Brigitte Bardot was under siege by photographers.
After a month-long siege, they gave themselves up to the federal agents.


He tried to simplify the story for the younger audience.
We’re looking for ways to simplify the process of applying for US citizenship.
The law needs to be simplified.
We have done everything we can to simplify the procedure.


Her news put me in a difficult situation.
“Would you get involved in a fight?” “It would depend on the situation.”
The house’s situation in the river valley is perfect.
The situation has become intolerable.
It’s a difficult situation and I don’t know what the answer is.


She watched her little granddaughter skip down the path.
The lambs were skipping about in the field.
We watched a child skipping stones across the lake.
Sports players often train by skipping.

This part of the book isn’t very interesting, so I’m going to skip (over) it.
The teacher kept skipping from one subject to another so it was difficult to follow what he was saying.
I’m trying to lose weight, so I’m skipping (= not eating) lunch today.


a line (/) used in writing to separate words, numbers, or letters


to cry noisily while breathing in short sudden bursts
He began sobbing uncontrollably.
The sound of her sobbing kept them awake all night.
He woke up finally from a nightmare of dismembered bodies and prison guards to find himself bathed in sweat and sobbing uncontrollably.
I found her sobbing in the bedroom because she’d broken her favorite doll.
I could hear her sobs from the next room.

soccer= football

I’ve never been much of a soccer fan.
Did you play soccer at school?
In San Diego County, some 30,000 kids play in organized soccer leagues, they said.

social media

Companies are increasingly making use of social media in order to market their goods
Blogs, podcasts and other forms of social media are creating new opportunities for entrepreneurs to reach the public.


Beans are a very good source of protein.
Milk is a good source of calcium.
We’ve found the source of the trouble.
List all your sources at the end of your essay.
I’ve heard from reliable sources that the company is in trouble.


She was stabbed several times in the chest.
He was jailed for 15 years for stabbing his wife to death.
He pulled a knife and stabbed her.

He had been lied to and stabbed in the back by people that he thought were his friends.

stammer = stutter

to speak with a lot of pauses and repeated sounds, either because you have a speech problem, or because you are nervous, excited etc.
Whenever he was angry, he would begin to stammer slightly.
“Wh-when can we g-go?” she stammered.
He dialled 999 and stammered (out) his name and address.

stay tuned

to continue watching or listening to the same television channel or radio station
used to say that you should look or listen for more information about a particular subject at a later time
The project is still under discussion, so stay tuned.

stereotype = klişe

a set idea that people have about what someone or something is like, especially an idea that is wrong:
Her plots are predictable and her characters little more than stereotypes.
The study claims that British advertising stereotypes women.
The novel has been criticized for reinforcing racial stereotypes.
We should avoid negative stereotypes regarding the performance of older workers.

stick around

to stay in a place a little longer, waiting for something to happen
You go ahead – I’ll stick around until Candice shows up.
Do you guys want to stick around for a while?
If you don’t feel like sticking around here, we could find a place to get some coffee.


obvious, interesting, and (esp. of a person) often attractive:

With her mass of black hair and pale skin she looked very striking.
There are striking similarities between the two cases.
I don’t know if you’d call her pretty but she’s certainly very striking.
Perhaps the most striking feature of this computer is that it is so easy to use.


I’ve been struggling to understand this article all afternoon.
Fish struggle for survival when the water level drops in the lake.
The family is struggling to survive on very little money.
She never gave up the struggle to have her son freed from prison.


You look absolutely stunning in that dress.
Mother came out of her room, looking stunning in her silk dressing gown.
Once you got to the top, you have a stunning view and a choice.
The view from our room is stunning.

stutter = stammer

to speak or say something, especially the first part of a word, with difficulty, for example pausing before it or repeating it several times:
She stutters a little, so be patient and let her finish what she’s saying.
“C-c-can we g-go now?” stuttered Jenkins.
‘I’m D-d-david, ’ he stuttered.


You can subscribe to the magazine for as little as $32 a year.
She subscribes to an environmental action group.
About 60 percent of U.S. households already subscribe to cable TV.
2.3 million people subscribe to this online music service.
She subscribes to several women’s magazines.


large in size, value, or importance:
The findings show a substantial difference between the opinions of men and women.
There will be substantial job losses if the factory closes down.
He took a substantial amount of money.


to a large degree: significantly
House prices have risen substantially over the last six months.
Their new house is substantially bigger than their previous one.
We now have substantially reduced interest rates.
Serious crime is down substantially.
The product is not substantially different from previous models.


an area on the edge of a large town or city where people who work in the town or city often live:
the outer area of a town, rather than the shopping and business centre in the middle:
The company decided to relocate to the suburbs because the rent was much cheaper.
We live in a suburb of London.
I grew up in a very middle-class suburb of Manchester.
Most of the people who live in the suburbs work in the city.
I was born and brought up in a suburb of New York City.


a pig, esp. when raised for food

swine flu

a type of influenza which is caused by a virus that originally infected pigs

Swine flu is a disease of pigs that can, in rare cases, be passed to humans.

swine fever

a serious disease of pigs

Scientists say around a quarter of all the world’s pigs could die of swine fever..
African swine fever virus is a contagious viral disease impacting only pigs, not people, so it is not a public health threat or food safety concern.

take on

take somebody ↔ on to start to employ someone → hire
We’re taking on 50 new staff this year.
take something ↔ on to agree to do some work or be responsible for something
Don’t take on too much work – the extra cash isn’t worth it.
take something ↔ on to begin to have a particular quality or appearance
Her face took on a fierce expression.
His life had taken on a new dimension.
take somebody ↔ on to compete against someone or start a fight with someone, especially someone bigger or better than you
Nigeria will take on Argentina in the first round of the World Cup on Saturday.
He was prepared to take on anyone who laid a finger on us.


We were too tired to cook so we ordered takeaway.
He ordered a takeaway from the Indian restaurant.

a main message or piece of information that you learn from something you hear or read:

The takeaway from the conference was how competitive the tourism industry has become.
At the end of the class, the teacher gives us the takeaway points.


Her talent for music showed at an early age.
His artistic talents were wasted in his boring job.
His talents are being wasted in that job.
She has a God-given talent as a painter.


The magazine is aimed at teenagers and young adults.
Many parents find it hard to relate to their children when they are teenagers.
He was a bit of a rebel when he was a teenager and dyed his hair pink and had his nose pierced.


We pitched our tent in the shade.
A tent is a temporary shelter you use when you go camping.
Tonight groups of tourists sleep in tents and wait for the sun to rise.

terrific = very good

Your dress looks terrific!
Mr Jones thought my history paper was terrific.
You’ve passed your exam? That’s terrific!
The children built a terrific tree house.


She’s terrified (that) her mother might find out her secret.
He was terrified to stay home alone.
He’s absolutely terrified of snakes.
I was terrified that my father would find out I had lied to him.


Hong Kong became Chinese territory in 1997.
The plane was flying over enemy territory.
He was shot down in enemy territory.
The UN is sending aid to the occupied territories.


to make a formal statement of what is true, especially in a court of law
Mr. Molto has agreed to testify at the trial.
He testified that he had seen the man leaving the building around the time of the murder.


a public holiday in the US and in Canada when families have a large meal together to celebrate and be thankful for food, health, families, etc.

Where are you going for Thanksgiving?


Something that is timeless does not change as the years go past: remaining attractive and not becoming old-fashioned
The city has a timeless quality as if it had existed forever.
Rothko’s paintings have a timeless quality.
the timeless beauty of Venice


We will not tolerate any kind of racism.
She seems to be able to tolerate any kind of behaviour from the students.
I told him I wasn’t going to tolerate his drinking any longer.
These ants can tolerate temperatures that would kill other species.

touch on/upon

to mention a subject quickly when speaking or writing about another subject:

The talk was about educational opportunities for adults, and the speaker also touched upon sources of finance.
Before concluding, I would like to touch on the excellent work done by our interns.
The report touches on the relationship between poverty and poor health.


Our discussion included topics such as acid rain and the melting of polar ice.
We must pick topics for our research papers by next week.
The environment is a popular topic these days.
The wedding has been the only topic of conversation for weeks.
Abortion is one of the most controversial topics in America today.


Her second husband is totally different from Mark.
I totally agree with you.
She was depressed and felt totally hopeless about the future.
You look totally fabulous in that dress.
This book is totally different from her last one.


The tragedy happened as they were returning home from a night out.
Tragedy struck the family when their two-year-old son was killed in an accident.
It’s a tragedy to see so much talent going to waste.
His death is a terrible tragedy for his family.
The UN wants to see an end to the conflict and the human tragedy involved.
Tragedy struck the family when their two-year-old son died of leukemia.


A trauma such as a fire can upset a child for months.
Children experience trauma differently according to developmental level.
He had psychotherapy to help him deal with his childhood traumas.
She never recovered from the trauma of her mother’s illness.


She was making a tremendous effort to appear calm.
She praised her husband for the tremendous support he had given her.
Sales have been tremendous so far this year.
She is under tremendous pressure at work.


She only talks like that because she wants to sound trendy.
Trendy bars and restaurants are opening and inexpensive apartments in the area are getting hard to find.
New York City is full of trendy shops and restaurants.


The tribe danced for three days in the hope that the Great Spirits would send them rain.
They met a tribe of Somalian desert nomads.
She has studied Native American tribes from Mexico to Maine.

trigger – tetik

It’s not clear who actually pulled the trigger.
There are fears that the incident may be a trigger for more violence in the capital.
Some people find that certain foods trigger their headaches.
Eating chocolate can trigger a migraine headache in some people.


a state of confusion without any order:
a political or emotional situation that is very confused:

The plane encountered severe turbulence during the flight.

Political turbulence is spreading throughout the country.
The era was characterized by political and cultural turbulence.
There are signs of turbulence ahead for the economy.

political turbulence in Ukraine
turn out

to happen in a particular way or to have a particular result, especially an unexpected one:
As events turned out, we were right to have decided to leave early.
How did the recipe turn out?
It turns out that she had known him when they were children.
The party turned out to be a huge disappointment.
The news report about the explosion turned out to be false.
She thought she was pregnant, but it turned out to be a false alarm.
My fears turned out to be groundless.
She assured him that everything would turn out all right.


the amount of business that a company does in a period of time: CİRO

Large supermarkets have high turnovers (= their goods sell very quickly).
The business has an annual turnover of £50,000.
The company’s annual turnover is somewhere around £70.7 million.
Last year the company’s turnover was $240 billion, up 3% on the previous year.

İş dünyasında sık sık duyduğumuz turn-over kelimesi çalışan sirkülasyonu anlamına geliyor. Daha detaylı ifade etmek gerekirse, bir kurumda işe başlayan ve ayrılan çalışanların devir oranını ifade ediyor. Turn-over kavramı içinde çalışanların aynı firmada çalışma süreleri, söz konusu firmada ne sıklıkla işten ayrılmaların yaşandığı ve boşalan pozisyonların ne kadar sürede doldurulduğu gibi önemli veriler de yer alıyor. Turn-over sayısının yüksek olması şirketler için üzücü bir haber. Bir şirkette sürekli pozisyon boşalması ve çalışan değişmesi ekstra masrafa neden olduğu gibi verimlilik açısından da sıkıntı yaratan bir durum.

The high turnover among daycare workers is an ongoing problem.
Contract workers have a high turnover rate.


a type of black jacket, or jacket and pants, worn by men on formal occasions, usually with a bow tie


Ultimately, of course, he’d like to have his own business but that won’t be for some time.
His ambition is ultimately to run his own business.
Our plans ultimately depend on the weather.
Ultimately, the decision rests with the child’s parents.
Ultimately, you’ll have to decide for yourself.


a unanimous decision, vote, agreement etc is one in which all the people involved agree

It was decided by a unanimous vote that the school should close.
The decision of the committee was unanimous.
The committee made a unanimous decision to expel the three students.
The jury reached a unanimous verdict.


so obviously true that it cannot be doubted:

It is an undeniable fact that ice is cold.
Her popularity among teenagers is undeniable.
It was undeniable that low wages as well as unemployment were a major cause of poverty.

Hello I am Undeniable words written on a name tag or sticker telling others you are essential and valuable to the workforce or employer

to gradually make someone or something less strong or effective
The constant criticism was beginning to undermine her confidence.
The president has accused two cabinet members of working secretly to undermine his position/him.
If you continually criticize children you can seriously undermine their confidence.


If something is underway, it is happening now:
Economic recovery is already underway.
The project is already well underway.
Your peace will be shattered when the tourist season gets underway (=starts).
Plans are underway to build a new stadium in the city.


to find something after searching for it, especially something that has been buried in the ground or lost for a long time
Farmers still sometimes unearth human bones here.
In one shop, I unearthed a wonderful collection of 1920s toys.
A private detective has unearthed some fresh evidence.
Artifacts more than 500 years old have been unearthed at the site.


I know she upset you, but I’m sure it was unintentional.
Defense attorneys claimed the shooting was unintentional.
Gingrich said his violations were unintentional and that he regretted them.


Each person’s fingerprints are unique.
Every person is unique.
She has a unique ability of communicate with animals of all kinds.
The power of speech makes the human race unique among animals.
Each person’s genetic code is unique except in the case of identical twins.
I’d recognize your handwriting anywhere – it’s unique.


to upset or frighten someone so that they lose their confidence or their ability to think clearly
He was unnerved by the way Sylvia kept staring at him.
The interviewer was unnerved and changed the subject quickly.
Peggy’s strange smile unnerved me slightly.
I think it unnerved me to be interviewed by so many people.
The long silence unnerved him.


I haven’t had a chance to unpack yet.
She unpacked her suitcase and headed for the beach.
Maggie carefully unpacked the gifts she had bought.
He read the agreed statement to the group and then began to unpack it for them.


unrealistic ideas or hopes are not reasonable or sensible
It is unrealistic to expect these changes to happen overnight.
Some parents have totally unrealistic expectations of teachers.
Expecting four year old children to sit quietly for a whole hour is just completely unrealistic.


That’s an unusual name – is it an Icelandic name?
I was actually on time, which is unusual for me.
It’s not unusual (=it is quite common) to feel very angry in a situation like this.
Did you notice anything unusual about him?

ups and downs

If someone or something experiences ups and downs, a mixture of good and bad things happen to him, her, or it:
Like most married couples we’ve had our ups and downs, but life’s like that.


The library’s great collection allowed me to utilize many rare sources.
We must consider how best to utilize what resources we have.
The old fire station could be utilized as a theater.


All the children were given two vaccinations against measles.
Flu vaccination is not recommended for children younger than 6 months.
All children should be vaccinated against measles.


The government will have to borrow vast amounts of money.
The refugees come across the border in vast numbers.
In the past five years, there has been a vast improvement in graduation rates.
The people who have taken our advice have saved themselves vast amounts/sums of money.
The vast majority of children attend state schools.
A couple of people objected to the proposal, but the vast majority approved of it.


strength, energy, or enthusiasm:
His vigour and passion impressed me.
He gave his side of the story with vigour.

violate  / vayıleyt /

to break or act against something, especially a law, agreement, principle, or something that should be treated with respect:

They were charged with violating federal law.
It seems that the troops deliberately violated the ceasefire agreement.
The doctor has been accused of violating professional ethics.
The planes appear to have deliberately violated the cease-fire agreement.


It was clear that they had not acted in violation of the rules.
The verdict was a gross violation of justice.
She’s claiming that her detention by the police was a violation of her human rights.


A strong opposition is vital to a healthy democracy.
She had found out some information of vital importance.
The kidney plays a vital role/part in the removal of waste products from the blood.
It’s absolutely vital that you do exactly as I say.
It is vital to get medical supplies to the area as soon as possible.


Vivid descriptions, memories, etc. produce very clear, powerful, and detailed images in the mind:
He gave a very vivid and often shocking account/description of his time in prison.
I’ve got vivid memories of that summer.
He had a vivid picture of her in his mind.

very brightly coloured:
She was wearing a vivid pink shirt.
his vivid blue eyes


She was too young to vote in the election.
The committee voted on the proposal and accepted it unanimously.
Only people over 18 are eligible to vote.
In some countries, women still don’t have the vote.
Who did you vote for in the last election?
In a democracy, all adult citizens have the right to vote.


These trousers are a bit tight around my waist.
The skirt was too big around the waist.
Lota was paralysed from the waist down.


You could see the poor dog weakening daily as the disease spread through its body.
The country’s economy continues to weaken.
The plan has divided the country and weakened the government.


He’s a very wealthy man.
With their natural resources, they are potentially a very wealthy country.
Joan comes from a wealthy family.


The weather in the mountains can change very quickly, so take appropriate clothing.
We’re going to have a picnic, weather permitting (= if the weather is good enough).
The weather is expected to remain clear for the next few days.
The match has been canceled due to adverse weather conditions.
The rescue operation has been complicated by bad weather.
Fairweather was forecast for the following day.
The weather was good at the start of the week.


We watched a spider spin a web between three tall grass stems.
A spider’s web hung in a corner of the window.

Jane’s been surfing the Web all morning.


On weekdays I’m usually in bed by ten o’clock.
The bank is open from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. on weekdays.


What weight can this lorry safely carry?
There was a slight decrease in his weight after a week of dieting.
Try not to lift heavy weights.
I lift weights twice a week at the gym.
Don’t tease him about his weight – it’s cruel.
My weight reduces when I stop eating sugar.


Her boyfriend’s a bit weird but she’s nice.
That’s weird – I thought I left my keys on the table but they’re not there.
I heard some weird noises coming from outside.
She is a little weird in the way she dresses, I have to admit.


The visitors were warmly welcomed by the head of the department.
Come and see us whenever you’re in town – you’re always welcome/you’ll always be welcome.
This move towards improving childcare facilities has been widely welcomed.


The points of the compass are north, south, east, and west.
The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
Most of the region will be dry tomorrow, but the west will have some rain.
The Black Country is/lies to the west of Birmingham.


In western Europe, a seven- to the eight-hour working day is about the average.
The western edge of the desert is home to many rare species of plants.
He was an officer on the western front.


compared with the fact that; but:

He must be about 60, whereas his wife looks about 30.
You eat a huge plate of food for lunch, whereas I have just a sandwich.
The old system was fairly complicated whereas the new system is really very simple.
Whereas the city spent over $1 billion on its museums and stadium, it failed to look after its schools.


She leaned over and whispered something in his ear.
What are you two girls whispering about?
I heard whispers outside my room.
You don’t have to whisper, no one can hear us.
‘I’ve missed you, ’ he whispered in her ear.


The referee whistled and the game was over.
He whistled as he worked.
On the days when she wore a skirt, the men on the building site would whistle at her.
She always whistles in the bath.
He whistled to call his dogs.

The referee blew his whistle for half-time.


someone who tells people in authority or the public about dishonest or illegal practices at the place where they work.

He cannot work because he has been identified as the whistle-blower.


a fire that is burning strongly and out of control on an area of grass or bushes in the countryside:
Major wildfires have destroyed thousands of acres in Idaho.


The ducks woke up and flapped their wings.
The cage was so small the birds could not even stretch their wings.
I don’t like chicken wings – there’s not much meat on them.
I could see the plane’s wing out of my window.
The poor bird couldn’t fly because it had a broken wing.


Wipe the table with a damp cloth.
Bill wiped his eyes (=wiped the tears from his face) and apologized.
He pulled a handkerchief from his pocket and wiped his nose.
Wipe your face. There’s chocolate all around your mouth.
Wipe your feet before you come in.
Do you have some paper towels that I can wipe the floor with?
Don’t wipe your nose on your sleeve!

wipe out

to destroy, remove, or get rid of something completely

Whole villages were wiped out by the floods.
Nothing could wipe out his bitter memories of the past.
Archaeologists think that massive floods could have wiped out the dinosaurs.


Police are appealing for witnesses to the accident to come forward.
According to (eye) witnesses, the robbery was carried out by two teenage boys.
She was witness to the tragic event.
The document was signed in the presence of two witnesses.


Our chief of police is a woman, and our mayor is a woman, too.
I was talking to a woman I met on the flight.
When a woman is pregnant, the levels of hormones in her body change.
Women drivers tend to be much more careful than men.


I wonder what the future holds for you and me.
I wonder whether you could pass me the butter?
I wonder if you could give me some information about places to visit in the area?
I wonder if I’ll recognize Philip after all these years.
I wonder what she’ll say when she finds out.

The sight of the Taj Mahal filled us with wonder.

an object that causes a feeling of great surprise and admiration:

We spent a week visiting the wonders of Ancient Greek civilization.
the Seven Wonders of the World


Jack has been a loyal worker in this company for almost 50 years.
There’s not enough interaction between the management and the workers.
There is a shortage of skilled workers.
The workers are threatening to go on strike.
The report shows that male manual workers earn twice as much as female workers.


We have offices in over 56 countries worldwide.
Many credit cards can be used worldwide.
There has been a worldwide decrease in the number of whales.
The company has a worldwide reputation for quality.


The mosques were built to worship God.
We need a place to worship.
For Jews, the synagogue is the centre for community worship and study.
Local people have complained about improperly dressed tourists entering places of worship (= buildings for religious ceremonies or private prayer).


A nurse cleaned and bandaged the wound.
It took several months for his wounds to heal.
Several of the victims suffered severe stab wounds.
He died of gunshot wounds.
Her head wounds needed 50 stitches.


Ambulances took the wounded to nearby hospitals.
There are over 4000 refugees in the camp, many of them wounded.


The present was beautifully wrapped in gold paper.
Ella wrapped a thick coat around her shoulders.
He wrapped a bandage around my injured wrist.
I’ve still got a few Christmas presents to wrap up.



There were two large wreaths on the coffin.
The president ended his visit by laying a wreath at the war memorial.
The bride wore a wreath of flowers on her head.
The prime minister laid a wreath at the war memorial.


He has wrestled professionally for five years.
The two boys wrestled for a while then gave up, tired.


I sprained my wrist playing tennis.
She had a gold watch on her wrist.

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