Vocabularies A-G – PART 1

abortion: miscarriage

She decided to have/get an abortion.
Abortion is restricted in some American states.

about to…

We use the modal expression be about to as an adjective in the modal expression be about to to refer to something that will happen very soon in the future:

He was about to phone the police.

accept  ≠  refuse

Do you accept credit cards?
She was in Mumbai to accept an award for her latest novel.
I offered her an apology, but she wouldn’t accept it.
I accept full responsibility for the failure of the plan.
We’ve offered her the job, but I don’t know whether she’ll accept it.
After a lot of careful thought, she decided to accept their offer.


She was injured in a car/road accident.
Sinan died in a traffic accident.
Hakan must have had an accident

achieve: succeed

The government’s training policy, he claimed, was achieving its objectives.
She finally achieved her ambition to visit South America.

achievement: success

You are very modest about your achievements, talents and abilities.
Winning the award was a great achievement.


Don’t tell me how to do this; show me!
Actions speak louder than words.

active /ektif/

It’s good for old people to stay active if they can.
I had an active social life when I was at college.
She’s very active in (= involved in) local politics.
Both of his parents were very politically active.
It is important to educate children before they become sexually active.
He takes a more active role in the team nowadays.


Do you want to add your name to the list?
Add 7 and 5 to make 12.
s there anything you’d like to add, David?
If you add (= calculate the total of) three and four you get seven.


I admired him for his determination.
I really admire people who can work in such difficult conditions.

admit: confess

He admitted his guilt/mistake.
She admitted (that) she had made a mistake.
She admitted making a mistake.
At first, he denied stealing the money but he later admitted (to) it.


An adult under English law is someone over 18 years old.
Adults pay an admission charge but children get in free.

adultery /edalderi/ zina

sex between a married man or woman and someone he or she is not married to:

Many people in public life have committed adultery.


People in Turkey legally reach adulthood at 18.


Steven gave me some good advice.
I think I’ll take your advice (= do what you suggest) and get the green dress.
Can I give you a piece of advice?
I need some advice on which computer to buy.


His doctor advised him against smoking.
I’d strongly advise against making a sudden decision.
They’re advising that children be kept at home.
I’d advise waiting until tomorrow.


Both buildings were badly affected by the fire.
The divorce affected every aspect of her life.
It’s a disease that affects mainly older people.
If this project fails, it will affect not only our department, but also the whole organization.

Not only did he turn up late, he also forgot his books.


You could always hire a dress for the ball if you can’t afford to buy one.
I don’t know how he can afford a new car on his salary.
I can’t afford to buy a house.

afraid : scared of

I’m afraid you’ve completely misunderstood the question.
I’ve always been afraid of flying/heights/spiders.
Don’t be afraid to say what you think.
Being afraid of the dark, she always slept with the light on.


Let’s go for a walk after breakfast.
Some people believe in life after death.
Her name came after mine on the list.
There’s a good film on the day after tomorrow.
After (= because of) what she did to me, I’ll never trust her again.
I’ll meet you down at the club after work.
I went to the post office straight/immediately after I left you.

after you

“Can I pour you some coffee?” “Oh no, after you.”


We all worked together in the aftermath of the earthquake.
Many more people died in the aftermath of the explosion.


He left the house over an hour ago.
The dinosaurs died out 65 million years ago.
Long ago/A long time ago, there lived a girl called Cinderella.


The bank has agreed to lend me €5000.
I agree that he should be invited.
I agree with you on this issue.

agriculture : farming

Agriculture is still largely based on traditional methods in some countries.
The area depends on agriculture for most of its income.

aim : goal

My main aim in life is to be a good husband.
Our short-term aim is to deal with our current financial difficulties.
Our common aim is to see Turkey remaining in the European family and recognising the importance of democracy, human rights and the rule of law, even at this most challenging time.

aircraft : airplane: plane

Please remember to take all your personal possessions with you when you leave the aircraft.
Attacks by enemy aircraft forced the tanks to retreat from the city.


Security checks have become really strict at the airport.
It’s about two kilometers from the airport to your hotel.
We arrived at the airport just in time to catch the plane.

all of a sudden

very quickly: immediately

It seemed to happen all of a sudden – I felt dizzy and I just collapsed.
All of a sudden the lights went out.

all right

That should be all right.
That is all right..

allow : permit : let

You’re not allowed to talk during the exam.
Smoking is not allowed in this restaurant.


She lives alone.
You shouldn’t leave a child alone in the house.
My wife and I like to spend time alone together away from the kids.


She always spells my name wrong.
My mum always comments on what I’m wearing.
You’re always complaining.
You always try to do your best.


Bordeaux is among the world’s major wine industry centres.
The girl quickly disappeared among the crowd.
I could hear voices coming from somewhere among the bushes.

amusement park

Roller coasters may be the most attractive aspect of an amusement park.
/ E M Y U Z M I N T /

analyse: analyze

She still needs to analyse the data.
You need to sit down and analyse why you feel so upset.
Joe had never tried to analyze their relationship.
We use a special computer program to analyse all the sales figures.

analysis (plr. analyses)

Blood samples were sent for analysis.
You’ll get the results when the analysis is complete.
Do you agree with Marx’s analysis of the failure of free-market capitalism?

angel – (encıl)

The angels in the painting have beatific smiles.

angle -(engıl) köşe/açı

The tower is visible from every angle/all angles.

angry : mad

There is no need to get angry.
I don’t understand what he’s angry about.
I got really angry with her.
She made me really angry.


She was annoyed to discover that her husband had taken her car keys.
I was so annoyed with her.


It’s really annoying when a train is late and there’s no explanation.
He’s got a really annoying laugh.
For me, one of the most annoying things when working on a computer is trying to find the right folder.


We’ve got ants in our kitchen.
They studied the behaviour of ants.

anymore : any more

She used to love cats but one attacked her and she doesn’t like them anymore.
I don’t smoke any more.


An apple a day keeps the doctor away.
One bad or rotten apple spoils the whole barrel.


I must apologize to Isobel for my lateness.
We apologize for any inconvenience caused.


I owe you an apology – I’m afraid I forgot to send Amanda that report.
I have an apology to make to you – I’m afraid I opened your letter by mistake.
I offered her an apology, but she wouldn’t accept it.
He sent me some flowers by way of an apology.

appear : show up

Things aren’t always what they appear (seem) to be.
He suddenly appeared in the doorway.
Two weeks after we’d planted the seeds, little green shoots started to appear.
His colleagues became suspicious when he did not appear at work since he was always punctual.


If you look out of the window on the left of the bus, you’ll see that we’re now approaching the Tower of London.
Since our research so far has not produced any answers to this problem, we need to adopt a different approach to it.
I’ve just read an interesting book which has a new approach to Shakespeare.
I’m not sure how to approach the problem.


The project has now received approval from the government.
The president has already given his approval to the plan.
It is just three months since we received official approval to go ahead with the project.


He doesn’t approve of smoking.
I thoroughly approve of what the government is doing.


Prunes, grapes, and apricots were some of the major crops.

argue: discuss: debate

There is no use in arguing any more.
The children are always arguing.
They were arguing over/about which film to go and see.


He had a tattoo on his left arm.
Tim’s mother put her arms around him.
Pat was carrying a box under his arm.
They walked along the beach arm in arm (=with their arms bent around each other’s).
She broke her left arm in a riding accident.
He was taken to hospital with a broken arm.


She sat in an armchair by the fire, reading a newspaper.
She imagined herself sitting in her favourite armchair back home.


When did you join the army?
He has decided on a career in the British Army.


He was arrested when customs officers found drugs in his bag.
The police arrested her for drinking and driving.


What time will your train arrive?
It was dark by the time we arrived at the station.
We arrived in Prague later that day.
We didn’t arrive at our hotel until after midnight.
An excited crowd waited for the singer to arrive.


Hundreds gathered to await the boxer’s arrival at the airport.
On arrival at the police station, they were taken to an interview room.
We regret the late arrival of Flight 237.


made by people, often as a copy of something natural:

clothes made of artificial fibres
an artificial heart
an artificial lake

artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) is an area of computer science that emphasizes the creation of intelligent machines that work and react like humans.


Art and English were my best subjects at school.
The gallery has an excellent collection of modern art.
Drama is an art that is traditionally performed in a theatre.
Do you regard film as entertainment or as an art?

as if/as though

She looked as if she was about to cry.
She acted as though she had never seen me before, when I’d just met her at lunch.

as long as

I’ll remember you as long as I live.
You can come as long as you’re quiet.
I’ll help as long as you buy pizza!
As long as I’m here, I’ll help.

ashamed of: shy: timid

You’ve got nothing to be ashamed of.
How could you treat her like that? I’m so ashamed of you.!


Can I ask one thing? Can I ask you something?
If you need any help, please don’t hesitate to ask.
She asked her manager if/whether she could leave early to pick up the kids.
I asked to see my accountant.

assist : help

You will be expected to assist the editor with the selection of illustrations for the book.
Yasmin assisted in the preparation of this article.


The company needs more financial assistance from the government.
A £1 billion investment would be of considerable assistance to the local economy.
Can I be of any assistance (= can I help), madam?
Teachers can’t give pupils any assistance in exams.


I assumed that you knew each other because you went to the same school.
Let’s assume that it is true.


We’ll meet you at the entrance.
Turn left at the traffic lights, and you’ll see the hospital straight ahead.
There’s a meeting at 2.30 this afternoon.

She smiled at me.
We were surprised at the news.
I was never very good at sports.


There’s a very relaxed atmosphere in our office.
These factories are releasing toxic gases into the atmosphere.
The atmosphere in the room was so stuffy I could hardly breathe.


My second attempt at making pastry was a bit more successful.
There’s no point in even attempting an explanation – he’ll never listen.
This is my second attempt at the exam.
The pilot made several attempts to regain control of the aircraft.

attend : join

I attended NATO Network Control Sytems (NNCS) Course in Latina in 1999, INFOSEC Officer Course in 2007.
Over two hundred people attended the funeral.
The meeting is on the fifth and we’re hoping everyone will attend.


Could I have your attention, please?
Could I draw your attention to item number three on the agenda?
Wait a moment and I’ll give you my full/undivided attention.


He was a very attractive young man.
I find her very attractive.


She visits her aunt twice a month.
Jerome has an aunt and uncle in Laguna Hills and some relatives in South Dakota.
We’re going to visit my aunt and uncle on Sunday

autumn: fall

We like to travel in (the) autumn when there are fewer tourists.
Last autumn we went to Germany.
It was early autumn and the leaves were turning yellow.


There’s no money available for an office party this year.
I’m afraid I’m not available right now.

Available now sign

I wasn’t even aware that he was ill.
Has Claude paid the phone bill? Not as far as I’m aware.


You look totally awesome in that dress.


The food was awful.
The weather is awful today.


I babysit for Jane on Tuesday evenings while she goes to her yoga class.


I’ll be back in a minute.
I feel like going back to bed.
He was back home by half-past eleven.
We ought to try and get back before it gets dark.
Can I call you back later?
I’ll pay you back on Friday.

He kissed her on the back of her head.
The answers are in the back of the book.
The sports pages are usually at the back.
I keep my keys in my back pocket.

Sleeping on a bed that is too soft can be bad for your back.
He lay on his back, staring at the ceiling.


Farming is the backbone of the country’s economy.
The non-commissioned officer corps is often referred to as “the backbone” of the armed services, as they are the primary and most visible leaders for most military personnel.
NCO’s are the backbone of the Army.


She doesn’t consider herself a professional backgammon player.

bad  ≠ good

Our holiday was spoiled by bad weather.
We’ve just had some very bad news.
I had a very bad night (= did not sleep well) last night.
Watch out – he’s in a bad mood (= being unpleasant to everyone).
He has some very bad habits.


I put a few personal belongings in a bag and left the house for the last time.
She suddenly remembered (that) her keys were in her other bag.
Just throw your bags in the back of the car.
Hey, don’t forget your school bag!
The supermarket no longer gives free carrier bags.

bake : pişirmek

to cook inside an oven, without using added liquid or fat:

You’ll bake in that fleece jacket! It’s baking outside.
Bake at 180°C for about 20 minutes.

a person whose job is to make bread and cakes for sale, or to sell bread and cakes

(also baker’s) a shop where bread and cakes are sold and sometimes made

I went to the baker for some bread.
I went to the baker, for I needed some bread.
Bald Man

He’s overweight and bald, and yet somehow, he’s incredibly attractive.
At 20 he was already going bald.
The idea of going grey doesn’t bother me, but I’d hate to go bald.


He has also banned the use of foreign currencies for all domestic contracts.
They are seeking a complete ban on nuclear testing.


I only had a banana for lunch.
Could you chop up a banana for the fruit salad?


He went bankrupt after only a year in business.
The recession has led to many small businesses going bankrupt.


The company was forced into bankruptcy.
The toll of bankruptcies was rising daily.


They heard a dog barking outside.
Barking dogs seldom bite.


a small animal like a mouse with wings that flies at night


Where’s the bathroom?
I really need to go to the bathroom (=use a toilet).

He got up and went to the bathroom, took a shower.


This alarm clock takes two medium-sized batteries.
I think the battery is dead/flat (= has lost its power).
You’ll run the battery down if you leave your car lights on.
I left my car lights on all night and now the battery is flat.

battle : war

It’s essential to win the battle against inflation.
Her only brother was killed in battle (= while fighting).
Firefighters battled the flames.
She had battled against cancer.


She was afraid she wouldn’t be able to bear the pain.
I couldn’t stand the noise any longer.
Please don’t leave me. I couldn’t bear it.

In everyday English, people usually say that they can’t stand something, rather than that they can’t bear it:

Bear in mind that some children will need help.
Thanks, I’ll bear that in mind.


“Why did you do it?” “Because Carlos told me to”.
We can’t go to Julia’s party because we’re going away that weekend.
Just because I’m lending you my dress for tonight doesn’t mean you can borrow it whenever you want to.
Where’ve you been, because (= the reason I am asking is that) we haven’t seen you recently?


He likes to have breakfast in bed on a Saturday morning.
She didn’t get out of bed till lunchtime today.
I’m exhausted – I’m going to bed (= going to get into a bed in order to sleep).
I didn’t even have the energy to get out of bed.
I want to finish off this essay before I go to bed.


A swarm of bees flew into the garden.
My arm swelled up where I was stung by a bee.


Let’s go and have a beer in the pub.
There’s plenty more beer in the fridge.
He’d already drunk four beers before I’d finished one.


There are more and more homeless people begging on the streets these days.
They begged for mercy.
I beg your pardon..


Beggars can’t be choosers, I suppose.

begin : start

What time does the concert begin?
The bridge was begun five years ago and the estimated cost has already doubled.
The film they want to watch begins at seven.


They behaved as if nothing had happened.
He was a little boy, but he behaved as if he was an adult.
I’m not going to talk to her until she starts behaving reasonably.
Oh, be quiet! You’re behaving like a two-year-old.


Her behaviour is often shocking.
He was notorious for his violent and threatening behaviour.


the feeling of being certain that something exists or is true:

His belief in God gave him hope during difficult times.
Recent scandals have shaken many people’s belief in (= caused people to have doubts about) politicians.

something that you believe:

All religious and political beliefs should be respected equally.
[ + that ] It is my (firm) belief that nuclear weapons are immoral.
He called at her house in the belief that (= confident that) she would lend him the money.


He believes that all children are born with equal intelligence.


A benchmark is something whose quality or quantity is known and which can therefore be used as a standard with which other things can be compared.
The truck industry is a benchmark for the economy.


In business, benchmarking is a process in which a company compares its products and methods with those of the most successful companies in its field, in order to try to improve its own performance.


I have benefited from the many good ideas which have been discussed in this conference.
In addition to my salary, I get a pension and medical benefits.
I didn’t get/derive (much) benefit from school.

beneficial :helpful: useful

The psychiatric team decided that it would not be beneficial to keep her in hospital.
Breast-feeding is extremely beneficial to the health of newborn babies.
From our point of view, we do not see how these changes will be beneficial to the company.
Only some bacteria are harmful – many are beneficial.

beside : next to

Come and sit here beside me.

besides: in addition to: also

She won’t mind if you’re late – besides, it’s hardly your fault.
Do you play any other sports besides basketball?


The town lies halfway between Rome and Florence.
(Kasaba, Roma ve Floransa arasında yer almaktadır.)
Standing between the two adults was a small child.
She squeezed between the parked cars and ran out into the road.
There were two houses with a narrow path in between.


The Bible says that Noah’s ark landed on the mountains of Ararat. (5,137 m)

bicycle : bike

I go to work by bicycle.
You should never ride your bicycle without lights at night.


The early bird catches the worm.
I killed two birds with one stone and picked the kids up on the way to the station.

A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.
bike : bicycle : motorbike

It would be better for the environment if more people used bikes rather than cars.
My youngest child is learning to ride a bike.


He bites his fingernails.
We were bitten by mosquitoes almost every night.


I wanted a simple black dress, nothing fancy.
I heard a loud bang and then saw black smoke.
The zebra is a wild African horse with black and white stripes.
When you fill in the form, please write clearly in black ink

blackmail : threaten

They used the photographs to blackmail her into spying for them.


Don’t blame me if you miss the bus!

Trump Says He Does Not Blame Turkey for Buying Russian Air Defense System.


Blankets are distinguished from sheets by their thickness and purpose; the thickest sheet is still thinner than the lightest blanket, because blankets are for warmth, while sheets are for hygiene, comfort and aesthetics.


Can you imagine how it feels to be blind?


There were two little girls, one Asian and one with blonde hair.
The baby had blond curls.

blood  /bılad/

She lost a lot of blood in the accident.
The police found traces of blood on his jacket.

Blue Monday

Blue Monday is a name given to a date stated to be the most depressing day of the year.


A good diet and plenty of exercise will help you to keep your body healthy.
She rubbed suncream over her entire body.
He had a fat body but thin legs and arms.
The human body is composed of about 60% water.
Police had marked off the area where the body was found.


The child was so thin that you could see her bones.
I don’t like fish because I hate the bones.
She had broken a bone in her foot.


A bonfire is a controlled outdoor fire used for informal disposal of burnable waste material or as part of a celebration.
Young people and children dance and sing round the bonfires.


Have you read any good books recently?
I took a book with me to read on the plane.
In the last two years the book has only sold 200 copies.
I have to return my library books on the sixth of July.

She’d booked a table for four at their favourite restaurant.
Will booked a seat on the evening flight to Los Angeles.
We were advised to book early if we wanted to get a room.

bookstore :  bookshop

a store that sells books

bored with

He was getting bored with/of doing the same thing every day.
I enjoyed my job at/in the beginning, but I’m bored with it now.


She finds opera boring.
Sometimes I enjoy my English lessons, but at other times I find them really boring.
This programme’s boring – shall I turn over to BBC?
Your hair has a natural wave whereas mine’s just straight and boring.
This town is so boring in the evening – there’s never anything happening.
Life would be bloody boring if nothing ever went wrong.


Mike was born in 1950.
Sonia was born into an aristocratic family.
Katy was born and brought up in Delaware.

borrow : lend

Can I borrow £100 off you until next week?
She used to borrow money and not bother to pay it back.
He borrowed a novel from the library.


I will be studying the report tomorrow when my boss arrives.
John was the boss of a large international company.
I started up my own business and now I’m my own boss (= I work for myself and no one tells me what to do).
“How are you getting on with your new boss?” “Not bad.”


Plastic bottles are lighter than glass ones.
Don’t use all the milk, Dan – that’s our last bottle.

bottom line  

The bottom line is that we need another ten thousand dollars to complete the project.

boundary : border

However, it was also the symbolic boundary between democracy and Communism during the Cold War.

Your generosity has no boundaries.


I took her a box of chocolates.
He lifted the box carefully down from the shelf.
Put the empty box in the rubbish bin.
I’m amazed you managed to move those heavy boxes all by yourself.
I’ve got boxes of old clothes in the attic.


The boys wanted to play football.
A group of teenage boys stood talking in a group outside.
I love my boys, but I’d like to have a girl, too.


The accident left him with permanent brain damage.
That can’t possibly be the right way to do it – use your brain!


The college is holding a brainstorming session to look at possible funding sources.
Remember ideas are welcomed from groups – so start brainstorming!
Sections and departments hold brainstorming sessions and posters are displayed to encourage the climate of innovation.


“Chicken” is slang for someone who isn’t very brave.
It was brave of you to speak in front of all those people.
I think he was incredibly brave to do a parachute jump.


Do you bake your own bread?
Shall I cut you a slice of bread?
There’s nothing better than fresh bread, straight from the oven.


She fell and broke her arm (= broke the bone in her arm).
I dropped the vase and it broke into pieces.
Take an egg and break it into the bowl.
She broke her promise/word to me (= did not do what she promised she would).

We’ll take another break at 3.30.
They worked through the night without a break.
Do you usually take a morning/afternoon break?

break down

Our car broke down and we had to push it off the road.
The school bus broke down and had to be towed to the nearest garage.
Oh no – has your washing machine broken down again?
I’m worried that his car has broken down, or worse still, that he’s had an accident.

Break down is a phrasal verb. It can mean either to stop functioning or to separate a whole into constituent parts.

  • This math equation is easier if you break it down into several parts.


a failure to work or be successful:

I had a breakdown (= my car stopped working) in the middle of the road.
Both sides blamed each other for the breakdown of talks.
She suffered a nervous breakdown after the death of her child.
Machine breakdowns occur regularly and repairs cost the company quite a lot of money.

break the record

She broke the record for the 5,000 metres.

breaking news

We’ll bring you all the latest breaking news as it happens.
Breaking news: the missing child from York has been found safe and well.


What do you want for breakfast?
Jane never eats breakfast.
She arrived shortly after breakfast.
Breakfast is served in the dining room from 8.30 till 10.00.

break up

to end or cause something to end
Media reports said police used tear gas at the construction site on Friday to break up a protest by the workers who were demanding better conditions, including improved safety at the site.

If a marriage breaks up or two people in a romantic relationship break up, their marriage or their relationship ends:
Jenny and George have broken up.
She’s just broken up with her boyfriend.


Take a deep breath.
Leo could smell the wine on her breath.
When he reached the top of the stairs, his heart was pounding and he was gasping for breath.
Will he listen to me or will I just be wasting my breath?


When you breathe out, you expel air from your lungs.
The atmosphere in the room was so stuffy I could hardly breathe.
The firefighters wore respirators to help them breathe in the smoke-filled house.
The doctors are doing all that they can, but she’s still not breathing properly.
I breathed in the crisp mountain air deeply.


Future brides and bridegrooms are often referred to as fiancées or fiancés respectively. (anılan sıraya göre)
The bridegroom (groom) was late for the ceremony.


“Shall I bring anything to the party?” “Oh, just a bottle.”
Bring me that knife/Bring that knife to me.
When they visit us they always bring their dog with them.
Is it okay if I bring a friend to the party?

bring up

He was brought up by his grandparents.
Upon his grandfather’s death in 578, Muhammad, aged about eight, passed into the care of a paternal uncle, Abu Talib. Muhammad grew up in the older man’s home and remained under Abu Talib’s protection for many years.

I hate to bring up business at lunch.
Why did you have to bring up the subject of money?


When did he last brush his teeth, she wondered.
She brushed her hair with long, regular strokes.

buck : deer (çoğul:bucks)

Can I borrow a couple of bucks?
He charged me 20 bucks for a new hubcap.



They did not see the sign by the gate saying “Beware of the bull”.
Our herd has two bulls and twenty cows.

bullet /bulit/

The bullet went clean through his shoulder.
She cried out in pain as the bullet grazed her shoulder.
The bullet entered the body at chest height.
The houses in the village were pockmarked with bullet holes.

bunny : rabbit

Bunny is another noun and another name for a rabbit, but it usually refers to a young rabbit, often a baby rabit.


It was brave of you to chase after the burglar.


He was badly burned in the blaze.
She burned his old love letters.
The brandy burned (= felt too hot on) my throat.
On her first day in the Caribbean Josie was badly burned (= her skin became red and painful from too much sun).
Fair-skinned people burn easily in the sun.

Burn your favourite songs or your important files onto CDs.

burn bridge

If you get mad and quit your job, you’ll be burning your bridges behind you.


I hate it when balloons burst.
Suddenly the door burst open (= opened suddenly and forcefully) and police officers rushed in.

The river was threatening to burst its banks.
If I eat any more cake I’ll burst (= I cannot eat anything else)!


His father is buried in the cemetery on the hill.
Squirrels bury nuts and dig them up later to eat them.
When we realized how silly we were acting, Olivia and I decided to bury the hatchet and be friends again.


You should take the bus/go by bus (= travel by bus) if you want to see the sights.


The meadow was covered with small bushes and grass.
The child was hiding in the bushes.


Mum was busy in the kitchen.
The kids are busy with their homework.
She’s busy writing out the wedding invitations.
I’ve got plenty of jobs to keep you busy.

but : however

I’m sorry, but I think you’re wrong when you say she did it deliberately.
She’s not only a painter but also a writer (= she is both).
We ran after him, but he escaped.
We enjoyed our vacation a lot, but it was expensive.


We were served scones with butter and jam.
scone: (a small unsweetened or lightly sweetened cake made from flour, fat, and milk and sometimes having added fruit)
Have some bread and butter (= bread spread with butter).


These flowers are brightly coloured in order to attract butterflies.
Some butterflies blend in with their surroundings so that it’s difficult to see them.


He bought some flowers for his girlfriend.
Eventually she had saved enough money to buy a small car.

by accident

without intending to, or without being intended:

I deleted the file by accident.
I found her letter by accident as I was looking through my files.

by heart

You know the telephone number by heart, don’t you?


A lion has escaped from its cage.
Using a bunch of bananas, the zoo-keeper persuaded the monkey back into its cage.
The gorilla rattled the bars of its cage.

green parrot in gold cage

He cut the cake into six pieces and gave each child a slice.
Is there any of that lemon cake left?
Bake the cake in a hot oven, about 220°C, for 30 minutes.
The exam was a piece of cake.


The children are taught to use calculators from a young age.
Candidates may use electronic calculators in the exam.


She needs to check his calendar and see what he was doing in the summer of 2010.


They’ve called the twins Edward and Thomas.
His real name is Jonathan, but they’ve always called him Johnny.
What’s her new novel called?
I think he was called Blake, if I remember correctly.
Do you think we should call the police?

call off :  cancel

The police have called off the search for the missing child until dawn tomorrow.

cancel : call off

She had to cancel her dental appointment.


The wild camel is more endangered than the giant panda.


There are three candidates standing in the election.
Candidates must write their names on the top page of the exam paper.
As a candidate country, Turkey needs to adapt a considerable part of its national legislation in line with EU law.


We need to get an assistant who’s capable and efficient.
Lord himself was a capable but not an outstanding player.
They’ve got a very capable lawyer working on the case.


Australia’s capital city is Canberra.
London used to be the financial capital of the world.


You should always check your oil, water and tyres before taking your car on a long trip.
She doesn’t have a car.
Where did he park his car?


They shared the care of the children.
The government has put a lot more money into health care.
The standard of care at our local hospital is excellent.

I really don’t care whether we go out or not.
I don’t care how much it costs, just buy it.

careful ≠ careless

Michael is a very careful worker.
After careful consideration of your proposal, I regret to say that we are unable to accept it.
Be careful with the glasses.
Be careful where you put that hot pan.

careless ≠careful

He’s very careless with his money.
His work is full of careless mistakes.
My son’s teacher says that his work is often rather careless.


I spilled red wine on their cream carpet.
We’ve taken the carpet up and exposed the floorboards.
He was busy hoovering the bedroom carpet when I got home.
We need to carpet the stairs.

The Flying Carpet

Do rabbits really love carrots?
While the rabbit-carrot connection is squarely at the center of pop culture, carrots aren’t the ideal food source for rabbits.
The sight of Bugs Bunny chewing a carrot is among the best–known images in cartoon history, but root vegetables are in fact bad for rabbits.

carry out

The hospital is carrying out tests to find out what’s wrong with her.
I’m only carrying out my orders/instructions.
She arrived to carry out a health and safety inspection of the building.
His orders were carried out to the letter.
That company does not carry out tests on animals.

cashier /keşiyır/

She was once dismissed from her job as head cashier with a supermarket chain on suspicion of embezzlement.


We visited an ancient ruined castle overlooking the sea.
In addition to his flat in London, he has a villa in Italy and a castle in Scotland.


Two armed men were caught trying to cross the frontier at night.
They were happy because they had caught a lot of fish that day.
I can see you’re busy right now, so I’ll catch you (= speak to you) later.


to put people or things into groups with the same features:

The books are categorized into beginner and advanced.
I would categorize this as a very early example of Tudor art.

cause  : reason

The police are still trying to establish the cause of the fire.
She had died of natural causes.

I hope the children haven’t caused you too much trouble.
I didn’t mean to cause you any trouble.


A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies and cremated remains are buried.


Life in the 19th century was very different from what it is now.
She was probably the most highly educated prime minister of this century.
The church was built in the 13th century.


D&R has built up a chain of 180 bookshops across the country.
The gates were locked with a padlock and a heavy steel chain.
Put the chain on the door if you are alone in the house.
Songül was wearing a beautiful silver chain around her neck.
The well-known fast-food chain has expanded to over 20,000 restaurants in 17 countries.

chain smoker

Chain smoking is the practice of lighting a new cigarette after one that is finished.
He is a chain smoker.


The coat was thrown over the back of the chair.
She slumped into the chair, exhausted.

Who will take the chair at the next meeting?
All questions should be addressed to the chair.
She is the chair of the board of governors at a local school.
We need a chair for Ian – could you get one from the other room?
Would you like to chair tomorrow’s meeting?

chaos  /keyas/

Our house is in complete chaos at the moment.
There was chaos in the theatre when the bomb went off.
Computer failure has created chaos in the passport office.
Snow and ice have caused chaos on the roads.
Ever since our secretary walked out, the office has been in a state of chaos.


Susan has changed a lot since I last saw her.
Changing your eating habits is the best way to lose weight.
The leaves on trees change colour in the autumn.

Three boys were changing a tyre by the side of the road.
I bought these gloves for my daughter, but they’re too large. Can I change them for a smaller size?
The car needs an oil change.
There was a sudden change in the weather.

I want to change my dollars into pesos, please.
Can you change a £20 note? Can you make change for $20?
I have about a dollar in change.

charge: ücretlendirme

He charged me twenty bucks for this carpet.
There will be an extra charge for any additional passengers.

charge with: suçlamak

(of the police) to make a formal statement saying that someone is accused of a crime:

She’s been charged with murder.
She is charged  with murdering her husband.

chat: have conversation

We were just chatting about what we did last weekend.
Why don’t you give me a call and we’ll have a chat?


He cheats at cards?
He cheated in the test by copying from the boy in front.
The winner has been disqualified for cheating, so justice has been done .


Would you like a slice/piece of cheese with your bread?
goat’s cheese
You need 250 grams of grated cheese for this recipe.


The cherry tree is beginning to blossom.
I had a cherry flavoured drink.


I’m not conversant with the rules of chess.
She’s quite a hotshot (someone who is skillful and successful at something:) at chess.
In chess, the pieces can only move in certain directions.
If you want to get anywhere in chess, you have to study the various openings.
(the beginning of a game of chess: opening)


Would you like some a piece/stick of chewing gum to chew?
This meat is difficult to chew.

chewing gum

Would you like a piece/stick of chewing gum?
I’ve got chewing gum stuck on my shoe.
Can I have a piece of chewing gum?


He rubbed his chin thoughtfully.
Graham came back from holiday with a week’s growth of beard on his chin.

Chin up!

Chin up! It’ll soon be the weekend.
Chin up! It’ll be over soon.


It’s your choice..
There wasn’t much choice on the menu.
He had no choice but to accept.


She had to choose between the two men in her life.
It’s difficult choosing where to live


They built the church on the edge of the village.
The bride and groom posed for pictures outside the church.


Cigar smoking is often considered less dangerous than cigarette smoking, but this isn’t true.


I need a packet of cigarettes.
She lit a cigarette.


Some people think that nuclear war would mean the end of civilization.
Many different civilizations have left their mark on the country and its culture.


The house was clean and tidy.
The town council is responsible for keeping the streets clean.
I’m going to clean the windows this morning.
You should always clean your teeth after meals.


It’s written in clear, comprehensible English.
It became clear that he wasn’t developing like all the other little boys.
Her ideas were clear and logically presented.
He isn’t at all clear about what he wants to do with his life.
The water in the lake is so clear that you can see the bottom.
It took several hours to clear the road after the accident.
I’ll make the coffee if you’ll clear the table.

clever: genius: smart

Fiona is very clever at physics.
Charlie has a clever idea/plan for getting us out of our present difficulties.

Opposite words for clever and stupid illustration

I think the kitchen clock is fast/slow (= is showing a later/earlier time than it should).
The clock began to strike twelve.
The clock was striking ten as we went into the church.


The stages commence at the top and move in clockwise direction.


The sky was a perfect blue – not a cloud in sight.
The sun disappeared behind heavy clouds.
Every cloud has a silver lining. (Her işte bir hayır vardır)

cock :  rooster

rooster an adult male chicken:

The cock started to crow.



I’ve got a cold.
She caught a cold at school.
My feet are so cold.
It’s freezing cold today.
You’ll feel cold if you don’t wear a coat.

Kid in hot and cold weather. Cartoon style illustration isolated on white background.

He’s colour-blind and can’t distinguish the difference between red and green easily.

colleague /kolig/

I don’t know anything about this, but I’m sure my colleague here can help you.
We’re having a small drinks party for one of our colleagues who’s leaving next week.


She collects dolls.
So when did you start collecting antique glass?

Butterfly Collection

There’s an Egyptian art collection on display at the museum at the moment.
Rosie has a massive collection of furry toys.
The curator guided us round the gallery, pointing out the most famous paintings in the collection.
Her latest fashion collection features shimmering iridescent materials.
Rachel bought yet another pair of shoes to add to her collection.


I don’t want any comments on/about my new haircut, thank you!
My mum always comments on what I’m wearing.
He commented that the two essays were rather similar.
Do you have any comments on that, David?


Lots of people have complained about the noise.
You’re always complaining!
He complained that his boss was useless and he had too much work.
They are always complaining about their neighbor, whose dog frightens their kids.

complete: finish

All she needed to complete her happiness was a baby.
Have you completed your application form yet?
He’s just completed filming his 17th feature film.

I have complete confidence in her. She’ll be perfect for the job.
The evening was a complete disaster.

completely: totally

Have you completely lost your mind?
I agree with you completely.
She’s completely mad.
He’d completely changed – I didn’t recognize him.


I need some advice on which computer to buy.
When you buy a new computer, you usually get software included at no extra cost .
Modern computers can hold huge amounts of information.

confess : admit

He has confessed to the murder.
She confessed to her husband that she had sold her wedding ring.


I have a confession to make – I’ve lost that book you lent me.
He made a full confession to the police.
After being questioned by the police for two days, Johnson signed a confession.
The two men allege that the police forced them to make false confessions.

confident : sure

Be a bit more confident in yourself!
They don’t sound confident about the future of the industry.


He has the confidence to walk into a room of strangers and immediately start a conversation.
She’s completely lacking in confidence.
I have every/complete confidence in her. She’ll be perfect for the job.


I am a little bit confused.
This letters are confusing. Could you help me with them please?


We have two people called Paul James working here, so it’s a bit confusing!
The instructions are really confusing. Could you help me with them, please?


“I passed my driving test.” “Congratulations!”
Give him my congratulations when you see him.


The capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Army, under the command Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II on 29th May 1453.


With this conquest Ottomans became an Empire and one of the most powerful empires, The Eastern Roman Empire fell and lasted.


After the Constantinople conquest, 21 years old Ottoman Sultan II. Mehmed also took the title “The Conqueror” added to his name.


The general consensus in the office is that he can’t do his job.
Could we reach a consensus on this matter? Let’s take a vote.

We were unable to reach a consensus about membership fees.
There is little consensus about the issue of smacking children.
We managed to get a consensus about not smoking in the office.

consist of

My family consists of four people.
The building consists of four floors.
There is a large art collection, consisting of over 300 paintings.
The apartment consisted of three rooms.
The crowd consisted mostly of college kids and office workers.
Her responsibilities consist of answering the phone and greeting visitors.

continue: go on : carry on

Sheila continued to work after she had her baby.
He will be continuing his education in the US.
The strike continued for another four weeks.

Rescue teams will continue the search tomorrow.
He picked up his book and continued reading.
We need the money to continue our work.
They continued arguing for a long time.
Despite all the warnings, many people continue to smoke.


She swam out into the cool water.
The evening air was cool.
Relax in the sun with a cool drink.

He was very cool when we broke the window, and didn’t shout or get mad.
Stay/Keep cool (= do not become angry or excited).

“So how was the concert?” “It was cool!”
Our new car is really cool.
You have such a cool bedroom.


He shivered with cold in his thin cotton shirt.
Black slaves used to work on the cotton plantations of the southern United States.



Do you feed your chickens corn?
All our chickens are fed on corn.

cough /kaf/

She was coughing yesterday.
The smoke made me cough.

She is coughing.

I was amazed at the number of plants – I counted 147.
Sarah can count up to five now.
The teachers counted the students as they got on to the bus.
He began counting backwards: “Ten, nine, eight …”


What is the largest country in Europe?
Sri Lanka is my native country, but I’ve been living in Belgium for the past five years.
French cheeses are exported to many different countries.


The court case lasted six weeks.
Four people will appear in court today, charged with fraud / cruelty to animals.
You may be asked to give evidence before a court of law.
Please describe to the court exactly what you saw.

Can you book a tennis court for tomorrow?


My brother’s wife and I both had babies around the same time, so the cousins are very close in age.
Many of our distant cousins, whom we hadn’t seen for years, came to my sister’s wedding.


The farmer called the vet out to treat a sick cow.
We watched the cow suckling her calves.
The cows were grazing in the meadow.
We visited a dairy farm and saw the cows being milked.


He was wearing cowboy boots and a cowboy hat.
I don’t much like cowboy films/movies.


We walked along the beach collecting small crabs.
All the shops on the seafront had crab for sale.
This crab meat/salad is delicious!


a small bed for a baby, especially one that moves from side to side:

My mother rocked the cradle.

cradle of civilization

Mesopotamia is often called “the cradle of civilization”.


It’s important to create a good impression when you meet a new client.
Please create a new folder there.
The Bible and Quran say that God created the world.


A crisis separates the real men from the pretenders.
A mediator has been called in to resolve the crisis.


Humans, dogs, elephants and dolphins are all mammals, but birds, fish and crocodiles are not.

crocodile tears

It is not enough for us to weep crocodile tears over this affair.


The cock/rooster started to crow.

a large, black bird with a loud, unpleasant cry


Two’s company, three’s a crowd.
A crowd had gathered to hear her speak.
In her bright yellow coat, she was easily identifiable in the crowd.
A big crowd of demonstrators were protesting against cuts in health spending.
He pushed his way to the front of the crowd to get a better look.


I failed the exam, but it’s no use crying over spilled milk. I’ll try it again.

crystal ball

I can read the crystal ball and tell you of your future.
Let me look into the crystal ball. Hmm It is foggy..I see you.


I was curious to know what would happen next.
Babies are curious about everything around them.
“Why did you ask?” “I was just curious.”


Just out of curiosity I decided to go through the files.
I know, there is a saying in English. Curiosity killed the cat..


Mrs Wilson is one of our regular customers.
Would you mind waiting? I’m dealing with another customer at the moment.
“the customer is always right”


Cut the meat up into small pieces.
This knife doesn’t cut very well.
Where did you have your hair cut?
I cut my finger chopping onions with that knife last night.
Could you cut me a small piece of cheese, please?
He cut the cake into six pieces.
The razor slipped while he was shaving and he cut himself.

cute : lovely

She was a really cute baby.
Do you like Jill Anderson? I think she’s cute!
Heidi is the cutest girl in my class.


Are you going to the dance this weekend?
He was too shy to ask her to dance with him.
The lights and loud music in the club made her want to dance.


No one dares (dares to) speak freely about the political situation.
Everyone in the office complains that he smells awful, but nobody dares (to) mention it to him.
Do you dare (to) tell him the news?


The church was dark and quiet.
Suddenly, the room went dark (=became dark).
There were dark clouds in the sky.
No, you can’t play outside, it’s too dark.


Her father’s going deaf.
She’s deaf in her left ear.
She is deaf, but refuses to let her disability prevent her from doing what she wants to do.
“Didn’t you realize she was deaf?” “Of course I did.”
He’s been deaf and dumb since birth.

death toll

the number of people who die because of an event such as a war or an accident:

The day after the explosion the death toll had risen to 90.
Meanwhile, the death toll is expected to rise in the Philippnines as Mangkhut leaves a wake of destruction and landslides.

debate : discuss: argue

serious discussion of a subject in which many people take part:

Education is the current focus of public debate.
How we proceed from here is a matter for debate.
Over the year we have had several debates about future policy.


A decade is a period of ten years.

decide: make a decision

They have to decide by next Friday.
In the end, we decided to go to the theatre.
She decided (that) she would travel to India.
I can’t decide what to do.


She has had to make some very difficult decisions.
The company will reach/come to/make a decision shortly.


The hole is so deep you can’t see the bottom.
The water’s not deep here – look, I can touch the bottom.
The sky was deep blue.

deer : buck

When I saw her, I was like a deer in headlights.

deer in the headlights

An Imperial French army under the command of Emperor Napoleon was defeated by combined armies.


Whenever anyone criticizes her husband, she immediately jumps to his defence.
The team has a strong attack, but its defence is weak.


They are fighting to defend their beliefs / interests / rights.
He vigorously defended his point of view.

define :  explain

Before I answer your question, could you define your terms a little more?
It is very difficult to define the concept of beauty.

definition : explanation

The legal definition of what is and what is not pornography is very unsatisfactory.
What is the definition of “health”?


Have you definitely decided to go to America?
Are you going to have children? Oh, definitely.

delay /diley/

The manager (who was) responsible for the delay was fired.
Could we delay the meeting a few days?
I think we should delay deciding about this until next year.
Turkey should lift the state of emergency without delay.
My plane was delayed by an hour.

delicious : tasty

The delicious smell of freshly made coffee came from the kitchen.
That was a delicious dinner, thank you.


You should have your teeth checked by a dentist at least twice a year.
When did you last visit the dentist?
The dentist kept me waiting for ages.

deny ≠ confess

He denied that he had killed her.
He denied the allegations.

departure ≠ arrival

Our departure was delayed because of bad weather.
Do you know the departure time of your flight?

depend on / upon

You can always depend on Jane in a crisis – she always keeps her promises.
The length of time spent exercising depends on the sport you are training for.
Your choice of exercise must also depend on your general state of health.

dependent ≠ independent

Most children remain dependent on their parents while at university.
He is dependent on his father for support.
He’s still financially dependent on his parents.
Norway’s economy is heavily dependent on natural resources.
Do you have any dependent children (=who you are still supporting financially)?


He seemed a bit depressed about his work situation.
She became deeply depressed when her husband died.


I find this weather so depressing.
It’s depressing to think that we’ve got five more years of this government!

describe : explain

Let me describe to you how it happened.
Please describe to the court exactly what you saw.


They were lost in the desert /dezırt/ for nine days.
When you live in the desert, water is your most vital resource.

He deserted his wife and family for another woman.


After all that hard work, you deserve a holiday.
Chris deserves our special thanks for all his efforts.


What are we having for dessert?
If you make the main course, I’ll make a dessert. /disört/

despite : in spite of

I still enjoyed the week despite the weather.
Despite repeated assurances that the product is safe, many people have stopped buying it.
He managed to eat a big lunch despite having eaten an enormous breakfast.

destiny :  fate

The destiny of our nation depends on this vote!
People want to control/determine their own destinies.


This exercise is designed to develop the shoulder and back muscles.
It’s fascinating to watch how a baby changes and develops over time .
We have to develop a new policy/strategy to deal with the problem.
The company is spending $650 million on developing new products/technology.
our essay is good, but you need to develop your ideas more fully (= give more details).


A good diet and lots of exercise are essential for a child’s healthy growth and development.
I’m in charge of product development (= the creation and design of new products) for the company.
There have been significant computer developments during the last decade.

The Devil

The Devil, in Christianity, Islam, and Judaism, is the most powerful evil spirit.
The villagers believed a devil had taken control of his body.

Praying 5 times a day keeps The Devil / Hell away!


He had worked in the diamond mines of South Africa.
Shall I wear the diamonds or the pearls with this dress?


The loss of fluids through diarrhea can cause dehydration.
We collected data on diarrhoea for all children in the villages aged between 3 months and 5 years.


Our online dictionary is regularly updated with new entries.
We advise all our students to use a good dictionary.
If you don’t understand the meaning of a word, look it up in a dictionary.
I often check the dictionary for spelling and pronunciation.


It doesn’t make any difference to me.
It doesn’t make any difference to me.
What’s the difference between an ape and a monkey?
Is there any significant difference in quality between these two items?


She seems to wear something different every day.
He’s different now that he’s been to college.
We’re reading a different book this week.
Emily is very/completely/entirely different from her sister.
Emily and her sister are completely different.
There are many different types/kinds of bacteria.


His clothes were untidy and he had dirty hands.
We were hot and dirty after working in the garden all afternoon.

disappear : vanish

I’ll just say the magic word and the rabbit will disappear – Abracadabra!
The search was called off for the sailors who disappeared in the storm.
I can’t find my keys anywhere – they’ve completely disappeared.
The sun disappeared behind a cloud.
We looked for her but she had disappeared into the crowd.

disappointed: frustrated

If you’re expecting Dad to let you borrow his car, you’re going to be sorely disappointed.
We were deeply disappointed at/about the result.


The response to our advertisement has been somewhat disappointing.
What a disappointing result!

discuss : debate : argue

I’m very interested in your idea – shall we discuss it over lunch?
Stop shouting and let’s discuss this reasonably.
We have been discussing the possibility of working together.

Tartışmak: Discuss, Argue, Debate

discuss: Birşey üzerinde karara varmak için konuşmak, tartışmak

We should discuss on this holiday opportunity. (Bu tatil fırsatı üzerine konuşmamız/tartışmamız gerekir. ( Bir karara varmak için ))

argue: Hemfikir olmadığınız durumda sinirli bir şekilde tartışmak.

I wish my brother wouldn’t argue with me all the time. (Keşke kardeşim her zaman benimle tartışmasa. ( Anlaşmazlık nedeniyle))

debate: Herhangi bir konu üzerinde resmi bir şekilde tartışmak

Politicians are discussing yesterday’s demonstration. (Politikacılar dünkü mitingi tartışıyorlar.)

We will hold/have discussions with employee representatives about possible redundancies.
The matter is still under discussion (= being considered).

dish: tabak;yemek;bulaşık

food prepared in a particular way as part of a meal:
Paella is a Valencian rice dish considered as Spain’s national dish.
Can you recommend any vegetarian dishes?

What kinds of meat dishes do you serve?
Ne çeşit et yemeklerini servis yapıyorsunuz?

The cook prepares different dishes every day.
Aşçı her gün farklı yemekler hazırlar.

I wish you were a fish in my dish.

The dishes are all the plates, glasses, knives, forks, etc., that have been used during a meal:
Who’s going to do/wash the dishes (= clean the plates, glasses, etc.)?

A dish is a type of parabolic antenna designed to receive microwaves from communications satellites.
satellite dish: dish


This dishwasher even washes pots and pans .


It would be a disaster for me if I lost my job.
They took no measures to avoid the disaster.


The average distance from the Earth to the Moon is 384,403 kilometres, thirty times the diameter of the Earth.

Don’t try distancing yourself from me by calling me Mr Calder.


He’s colour-blind and can’t distinguish the difference between red and green easily.
I sometimes have difficulty distinguishing Spanish from Portuguese.

‘Are you capable of distinguishing right from wrong?’

Sorry to disturb you, but I have an urgent message.
What disturbs you most about this latest development?
Please don’t disturb your sister – she’s trying to do her homework.
I’m sorry to disturb you so late, but my car’s broken down and I don’t have my phone with me.

divorce ≠ marry

They stayed friends after their divorce.
One in three marriages ends in divorce.


What are you doing over the weekend?
The only thing we can do now is wait and see what happens.
What do you do (for a living)? (= What is your job?)
What can I do for you? (= How can I help you?)


After studying dolphins, people built submarines to move quickly in the ocean and stay under the water for a long time.
Dolphins move quickly in the water not only to be safe from danger.
Dolphins use their tails to go faster and their fins to change direction.
Whales and dolphins look like fish, but they’re really mammals!
While many other animals, such as chimpanzees and dolphins, live in groups and communicate, scientists don’t know for certain whether they can talk and share complicated ideas.


Emily had a donkey ride at the fair.
The little donkey struggled under its heavy burden.

at – eşek – katır

I have no doubt that he can do it.
No doubt about it.

do favour : to help

Could you do me a favour – would you feed my cat this weekend?

downtown  ≠ suburb

I work downtown, but I live in the suburbs.
She lives in a really beautiful apartment downtown.
Stacy works downtown.


Jonathan can draw very well.
The children drew pictures of their families.
Draw a line at the bottom of the page.
I’ll draw you a quick map if you’re worried about finding the hotel.

to attract attention or interest:

He’s an excellent speaker who always draws a crowd.
Could I draw your attention to item number three on the agenda?


I’d always dreamt of owning my own house, but I never thought it would come true one day.
I had lots of dreams last night.
I had a dream about you last night.
Sometimes I have a strange dream in which I try to speak but I can’t.
I’d always wanted to go to Africa and at last my dream came true.


Sheila wore a long red dress.
Have you chosen your wedding dress yet?
She was wearing exactly the same dress as I was.
She was wearing a black and white spotted dress.
My husband dresses the boys while I make breakfast.

dress code

Most evenings there’s a party and the dress code is strict – black tie only.


I think apple juice is your favourite drink, isn’t it?
Would you like a drink of water/tea/juice?
He drank three glasses of water.


I asked him to drive more slowly, but he didn’t take any notice.
The police fined her for driving through a red light.
She drives the kids to school every morning.


The driver lost control of his car when the brakes failed, and it went at full speed down the hill.
My mum’s an excellent driver.


When she’s drunk she’s capable of saying awful, rude things.


Some poultry farmers keep turkeys and ducks as well as chickens.

due to : owing to

The meeting is now due to take place next week.
Britain is due to leave the European Union on March 29.

because of:

A lot of her unhappiness is due to boredom.
The bus was delayed due to heavy snow.


During the summer she worked as a lifeguard.
He slept calmly during the early part of the night.
Did you hear the storm during the night?
During the summer we spend a lot more time out of doors.


It’s our duty to preserve the planet for future generations.
I felt it was my duty to tell them the truth.

eager : keen to

Sam was eager to get home and play with his new toy.
I was eager to get back to work as soon as possible.
He’s a bright kid and eager to learn.
A crowd of eager young students were already waiting outside.

eager beaver

a person who is willing to work very hard


Eagles are one of the largest and strongest birds in the world.


If you finish early you can go home.
If you arrived earlier, you’d have more time.
I like being a little early for interviews.

The early bird catches/gets the worm.
earn : gain

How much do you earn, if you don’t mind me asking?
You can’t expect to earn a living from your painting.

earth : world

The earth takes approximately 3651/4 days to go round the sun.
As every schoolboy knows, the earth revolves around the sun.


The 1999 İzmit earthquake was a 7.6 magnitude earthquake that struck northwestern Turkey on August 17,1999.
İstanbul is in an earthquake zone.

easy  ≠ difficult

easy come, easy go
This machine is comparatively easy to use.
This problem should be easy enough for someone who’s done physics at A level.
She doesn’t find it easy to talk about her problems.


Do you eat meat?
When I’ve got a cold, I don’t feel like eating.
We usually eat (= have a meal) at about seven o’clock.
I don’t eat meat and my husband doesn’t either.


The form says he was educated in Africa.
How much does it cost to educate a child privately?
The government say they are trying to do more to educate the public about the consequences of drug abuse.

education : training

It’s important for children to get a good education.
She also hopes her children will get a good education.
I don’t agree with the principle of private education.
Do you have a university education?


I tried taking tablets for the headache but they didn’t have any effect.
I think I’m suffering from the effects of too little sleep.
It’s important to protect your skin from the harmful effects of the sun.


What are the most effective ways to stop cigarette smoking?
What’s the most effective way to control crime?
Exams are not the most effective method of assessing students’ abilities.
The most effective solution to traffic congestion is to build more roads.


We need to get an assistant who’s capable and efficient.


How do you like your eggs – fried or boiled?
Mix the butter with the sugar and then add the egg.
Crack three eggs into a bowl and mix them together.

eggplant: aubergine


I don’t eat meat and my husband doesn’t either.
“I’ve never been to the States.” “I haven’t either.”
They do really good food at that restaurant and it’s not very expensive either.
We can either eat now or after the show – it’s up to you.
Either you leave now or I call the police! E
Either his mother or my sisters are singing in the pub tonight.
Either my sisters or his mother is singing in the pub tonight.


Do you think zoo keepers feed elephants and play with monkeys all the time?
That cloud in the sky looks like an elephant!
It is perhaps the largest of land animals, with the exception of the elephant.

elevator : lift

I took the elevator to her office on the fourteenth floor.
We’ll have to take the elevator.


the group of people who represent their country in a foreign country:

We used to be friendly with some people who worked at the Swedish Embassy.

the building that these people work in:


to cause someone to feel nervous, worried, or uncomfortable:

You’re embarrassing him with your compliments!
I didn’t want to embarrass her in front of her friends.

embarrased : shy : timid

I didn’t want to embarrass her in front of her friends.
I was embarrassed to admit that I was scared.
She felt embarrassed about undressing in front of the doctor.


My most embarrassing moment was trying to introduce a woman whose name I couldn’t remember.


And in modern times, Venice, Genoa, Portugal, Spain, France, and England, all sent forth emigrants to people foreign shores.
In the hotel where I passed the night, most of the servants seemed to be emigrants from Canada.


to leave a country permanently and go to live in another one:

Millions of Germans emigrated from Europe to America in the 19th century.
Thousands of Britons emigrate every year.


the process of leaving a country in order to live permanently in another country:

The switch from emigration to immigration in Portugal has largely been caused by its economic growth.


We used to have endless arguments about politics.
He seems to think that I have an endless supply of money.


Selim stole Hakan’s girlfriend and they’ve been enemies ever since.
It was strange to see the two former enemies shaking hands and slapping each other on the back.
They were deadly enemies at school, but now they seem to get on much better.

I was going to go out this evening, but I just haven’t got the energy.
The water is heated using energy from the sun.
Where do those kids get their energy from?
Are you suffering from a lack of energy?

My car engine overheated because the water had leaked out of the radiator.
The boat was about a mile from the shore when the engine suddenly died.


The engineer is coming to repair the bridge tomorrow morning.
He started his working life as an engineer but later became a teacher.
He is an engineer at a large electronics company.


Richard studied engineering at MIT.
The Eiffel Tower is a remarkable feat of engineering.
The bridge is a marvellous work of engineering and construction.
There are still some vacancies for students in science and engineering courses, but the vacancies in humanities have been filled.

Church Picnic: Enjoy yourself or you’ll go to hell.
Enjoy Yourself

Come on, why aren’t you dancing? Enjoy yourself!


I was happy enough in Bordeaux, but I missed my family.
It’s small enough to fit in your pocket.
Have I given you enough money?
The police didn’t have enough evidence to convict him.
He didn’t allow us enough time to finish the test.


Please knock before entering.
Her eyes brightened when she saw him enter the room.


There are two entrances – one at the front and one around the back.
Entrance to the museum is free.
How much is the entrance fee (=money you pay to get in somewhere)?
She found a parking space close to the hospital’s main entrance.


I can’t go down that street – there’s a “No entry” sign.
There was a big sign on the door saying NO UNAUTHORIZED ENTRY.


The office is quite bright and airy – it’s a pleasant working environment.
Certain chemicals have been banned because of their damaging effect on the environment.
We’re not doing enough to protect the environment from pollution.


Sorry but the escalator is out of use; you’ll have to take the stairs.
I cannot take this pram up the escalator, so I hope there is a lift I can use.


Two prisoners have escaped.
A lion has escaped from its cage.
He had to jump out of an upstairs window to escape.
Both children escaped unharmed from the burning building.

essay : article

For homework I want you to write an essay on endangered species.
Mr Jones thought my history essay was terrific.
I want to finish off this essay before I go to bed.
His essay was full of spelling errors.


I’m not exaggerating – it was the worst meal I’ve ever eaten in my life.
I couldn’t sleep for three days – I’m not exaggerating.


At the end of each level, there’s an exam.
How did you do in your exams?
If you fail the exam, you can retake it.
She was caught cheating in the exam.


The food was excellent.
Her car is in excellent condition.
Excellent !!


The museum is open daily except Monday(s).
The government has few options except to keep interest rates high.
It’s cool and quiet everywhere except in the kitchen.
Everyone was there except for Sally.

‘Every rule has an exception – that’s the rule. . .’

There are exceptions to every rule.
There is an exception to every rule.
We don’t usually accept late applications, but in this case we will make an exception.
You must report here every Tuesday without exception.
We don’t usually accept late applications, but since you were so sick I’ll make an exception (= do something different from what is usual).


The company expects to complete work in April.
I didn’t expect him to stay so long.
The officer expects complete obedience from his troops.
Snow is expected by the weekend.
The team expects to win.
We didn’t expect them to come.


Anne left Germany in the expectation of seeing her family again before very long.
Women who have high expectations of marriage are often disappointed.
Like most parents, we have high expectations for our children.
These figures are based on the expectation that the economy will continue to improve.


Do you have any experience of working with kids? (= Have you ever worked with them?)
The best way to learn is by experience (= by doing things).
I know from experience that Tony never keeps his promises.

I don’t think she has the experience for the job (= enough knowledge and skill for it).
In my experience, people generally smile back if you smile at them.
The experience of pain varies from one person to another.


She is very experienced in marketing.
I don’t think he’s really experienced enough for this sort of job.
What sort of work are you experienced in?
We are looking for experienced truck drivers.

explain : define

If there’s anything you don’t understand, I’ll be happy to explain.
The teacher explained the rules to the children.


Could you give me a quick explanation of how it works?
What was her explanation for why she was late?


He has no sight in his left eye.
She’s got beautiful green eyes.
He closed his eyes and went to sleep.


With his long dark eyelashes, he looked almost feminine.
Go and flutter your eyelashes at the barman, Janet, and see if you can get him to serve us.


I could see from his face he was unhappy.
She had a beautiful face.
Her face was white with fear.

This is one of the many problems faced by working mothers.
Passengers could face long delays.
You’re faced with a very difficult choice there.

fail /failed V2/

They failed to take the necessary precautions to avoid infection.
He failed in his attempt to take control of the company.
Many of us have tried to lose weight and failed miserably.
She moved to İstanbul in the hope of finding work as a model, but failed.
He failed in his attempt to break the record.

without fail

If you do something without fail, you always do it:
I go to the gym every Monday and Wednesday, without fail.

used to tell someone that they must do something:
Be there at nine o’clock, without fail.


The marriage was a failure and they both wanted to be free of it.
The meeting was a complete/total failure.
Their attempt to climb Hasan Mountain ended in failure.

faint : pass out

Kübra faints at the sight of blood.
I nearly fainted in the heat.
He caught me at the precise moment that I fainted.

not strong or clear; slight:

a faint sound/noise/smell
The lamp gave out a faint glow.
She gave me a faint smile of recognition.


I still have faith in him.
The public has lost faith in the government.
He had great faith in his team.
She has no faith in modern medicine.
You’ll cope – I have great faith in you.
After the trial, his family said they had lost all faith in the judicial system.

fall / v2.fell /  fallen

When I was walking on the street, I suddenly  fell down.
Temperatures could fall to minus eight tonight.
The path’s very steep, so be careful you don’t fall.
He fell badly and broke his leg.
Athletes have to learn how to fall without hurting themselves.
The horse fell at the first fence.
I fell down the stairs and injured my back.
She slipped and fell on the ice.
He always falls asleep after drinking red wine.

fall in love

I thought I was falling in love.
He fell in love with a young French student.


There were one or two familiar faces there.
Selahattin and Tarık were familiar to me.


Women shouldn’t have to choose between career and family (= having children).
Paul and Ana are hoping to start a family (= have children) soon.
Our common aim is to see Turkey remaining in the European family and recognising the importance of democracy, human rights and the rule of law, even at this most challenging time.


How far is it from Australia to New Zealand?
Is the station far away?
She doesn’t live far from here.
The station isn’t far – we could easily walk there.


Science has always fascinated me.
I was fascinated to hear about his travels in Paris.


I found the whole film fascinating.
I found him quite fascinating.
The book offers a fascinating glimpse of the lives of the rich and famous.


Bright colours are in fashion this summer.
Young people are very concerned with fashion.
Long evening dresses are going out of fashion.
Lucy likes to keep up with the latest fashions.


If you feed your dog on cakes and biscuits, it’s not surprising he’s so fat.
After giving up smoking, he became fat and irritable.

fate : destiny

His fate is now in the hands of the jury.
Fate has brought us together.


This is one of my favorite restaurants.
Those gold earrings are my favorites.


There are fears that the disease will spread to other countries.
I have a fear of heights.
She managed to conquer her fear of flying.
Fear of failure should not stop you trying.


Have you fed the cat?
Several children were feeding bread to the ducks.
The prison is required to feed and clothe the prisoners.
Let your baby feed as long as she wants.
US intelligence had been feeding false information to a KGB agent.
The horses were fed on hay and grain.


How are you feeling this morning?
He’s still feeling a little weak after his operation.
My eyes feel really sore.
I never feel safe when Richard is driving.

feel free to…

Please feel free to interrupt me if you don’t understand anything.


They are working in the cotton fields.
We went out onto the school playing fields to watch a game of football.
Peter’s an expert in his field.
There are good employment opportunities in the field of healthcare, particularly nursing.
The football field was too muddy to play on, so the game was cancelled


They are fighting to defend their beliefs / interests / rights.
He vigorously defended his point of view.
There were children fighting in the playground.

They fought with (= on the side of) the North against the South.
The birds were fighting over (= competing for) a scrap of food.

figure out : understand

I find him really odd – I can’t figure him out at all.
It takes most people some time to figure out new software.
If they know the cause of the problem, they might be able to figure out how to prevent it happening again.

fill in : fill out
I had to fill in this really complicated form. The rules are rather complicated to follow.
I’ve filled in the form, but you still need to insert your bank details and date of birth.
Please fill in the form!

I cut my finger chopping onions last night.
I could hear him tapping his fingers on the desk.


She had long red fingernails.

finish : complete

I’ll call you when I’ve finished my homework.
Please place your questionnaire in the box when you’re finished.
School starts at 9 a.m. and finishes at 3.30 p.m.
If you’ll let me finish my sentence, I’ll explain it to you.


What time do the fireworks start?


Flags of all the participating countries are flying outside the stadium.
You’re not allowed to swim when the red flag is flying.

Nato Members Flag Collection – Complete

My schedule is quite flexible – I could arrange to meet with you any day next week.
We can be flexible about your starting date.
The government needs a more flexible approach to education.


Our washing machine broke down yesterday and flooded the kitchen.
The whole town flooded when the river burst its banks.


Mangkhut struck the northern Philippines as a super typhoon, killing at last two people and causing flooding and landslides on the northern island of Luzon.
Some roads have been closed because of flooding.


The bathroom floor needs cleaning.
The children sat playing on the floor.
This building has five floors.
We live on the third floor.


She was ill so I sent her some flowers to cheer her up.
These flowers are brightly coloured in order to attract butterflies.
These flowers will bloom all through the summer.


He’s a fluent Russian speaker.
Şeyda is fluent in French and English and has a working knowledge of Chinese.
I can make myself understood in French, but I’m not fluent.
He knows quite a lot of French, but he’s not fluent yet.


I’d like to speak English fluently.
You are expected to read fluently in Chinese.


The poor bird couldn’t fly because it had a broken wing.
As soon as it saw us, the bird flew away/off.
We flew to Paris.
We are flying at a height of 36,000 feet.
She has to fly thousands of miles every year for her job.

The flies were swarming around the garbage cans.


We got lost in the thick fog.
The mountains were covered in fog.
He sat and waited for the fog to lift.
Dense fog is making driving conditions difficult on many roads.


Driving in foggy conditions must be difficult.
If your mind is foggy, you cannot think or remember things clearly.

foot (plural -feet)

I’ve been on my feet (= standing) all day and I’m exhausted.
I felt a sharp pain in my foot.
He’s six feet (30 cm x 6) tall, with blonde hair.


Can you speak any foreign languages?
The tour went through seven foreign countries in two weeks.
Some of the hotels accept foreign currency.

foreign affairs

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Turkish: Dışişleri Bakanlığı) is a government ministry of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for the foreign relations of Turkey.
I have always been keenly interested in foreign affairs.


About 40 million foreigners visited the US last year.
A lot of foreigners work here illegally.

The man who was killed by the robbers was found in the forest.
The man killed by the robbers was found in the forest.
Her legs were covered in scratches and bruises after her walk through the forest.
Tropical rain forests used to cover 10% of the earth’s surface.
forget forgot forgotten
forget  ≠ remember

I’m sorry, I’ve forgotten your name.
Let me write down that date before I forget it.
I completely forgot about Sezen’s party.
Selim had forgotten (that) she doesn’t come on Thursdays.


“Please, please forgive me!” she begged (him).
Don’t worry. He forgives people very easily.
He still hasn’t forgiven me for what I did.
He forgave his brother for breaking the window.


Put the knives and forks on the table.
You’ll find the knives and forks in the right-hand drawer.


He has a job as a forklift truck driver.


Water freezes to ice at a temperature of 0°C.
When the lake freezes (over) (= turns into ice on the surface), we can go skating on it.
The weather forecast says that it is going to freeze tonight (= that the temperature will be at or below 0°C).
Freeze! Keep your hands up!

fridge : refrigerator

Don’t forget to put the milk back in the fridge.
I’ve put the beer in the fridge to chill.
The fridge keeps food at a constant temperature.

friend  ≠ enemy

She’s my best/oldest/closest friend – we’ve known each other since we were five.
I’ve made a lot of friends in this job.
He finds it difficult to make friends.
Is he a friend of yours ?


In a speech contest last year, she suddenly got a frog in her throat and had a hard time speaking.

from dawn to sunset

Ramadan is the Islamic month of fasting, in which participating Muslims refrain from eating, drinking, smoking, having sex; from dawn until sunset.

frustrated: disappointed

feeling annoyed or less confident because you cannot achieve what you want:

Are you feeling frustrated in your present job?

frustrating: disappointing

He doesn’t listen to what I say and it’s so frustrating.
I guess job opportunities at the top are improving for women, but it’s such a slow process that it’s frustrating.


I could sense his frustration at not being able to help.
These bureaucratic delays have been causing us a lot of frustration.


The children were having so much fun, I hated to call them inside.
Did you have fun at the party?
The kids had a lot of fun singing and dancing.
I just want to relax and have some fun.
It’ll be fun seeing all my old friends again.


The funeral will be held next Friday.
Over 300 people attended the funeral.

funny ≠ unfunny

No matter how bad the situation there always seems to be a funny side to it.
It’s a really funny film.
The jokes are painfully unfunny.


They have a lot of antique furniture.
We bought both sofas from a big furniture warehouse that’s just off the motorway.
I helped him choose the furniture for his house.

GRAMMAR: Countable or uncountable?
• Furniture is an uncountable noun and is not used in the plural. You say:
The house has some beautiful old furniture.
✗Don’t say: The house has some beautiful old furnitures.
• Furniture is always followed by a singular verb:
The furniture was in good condition.
• When talking about one chair or table, you say a piece of furniture or an item of furniture:
There was only one piece of furniture in the room.


Rutteri is optimistic about the future of the business.
As soon as she knew she was pregnant, she started to plan for the future.
Sometimes I worry about the future.
Do you plan to leave New York in the distant future or the near future?

gain : earn

The mayor has gained a lot of support from the teacher’s union.
What do you hope to gain from the course?
After you’ve gained some experience teaching abroad, you can come home and get a job.
From the late 19th century, European powers began to gain control of parts of the Ottoman Empire.


I like to gamble when I play cards – it makes it more interesting.
Jack loves gambling on the horses.
Their religion forbids them to drink or gamble.


Standards of living have risen steadily, but there are still significant gaps between rich and poor.
She has a small gap between her front teeth.

garbage : rubbish : trash

Take the garbage can/bags out to the curb to be picked up.
There will be no regular garbage collection Monday.
We were stuck in traffic behind a garbage truck (= a large vehicle that collects garbage from containers outside buildings).


The house has a large back garden, and a small front garden.
The children were playing in the garden.
We had tea, and afterwards we sat in the garden for a while.

gate : door

The sign on the gate said ‘Private Property – No Admittance.’
Passengers for Madrid should proceed to gate 26 for boarding.
Please shut the gate.

gate: a part of a fence or outside wall that is fixed at one side and opens and closes like a door, usually made of metal or wooden strips

There were at least three generations – grandparents, parents and children – at the wedding.

genius : smart: clever

Einstein was a (mathematical) genius.
From the age of three, she showed signs of genius.

get along

I don’t really get along with my sister’s husband.
We’ve always got along quite well.
They seem to get along with each other.

get engaged

I was engaged her in my twenties.
Debbie and Chris have just got engaged.

get over

It took him years to get over the shock of his wife dying.
She’s just getting over the flu.

get the message 

Did he get the message? I got the message..
I will make sure he gets the message.


Whatever’s the matter? You look as though you’ve just seen a ghost!


The earrings were a gift from my aunt.
The clock was given as a retirement gift when he left the police.
Just ask the organization if a gift qualifies as a tax deduction.
There’s a gift shop in the hotel. They have jewelry and souvenirs and stuff.

giraffe /cireef/

a tall African animal with a very long neck and legs and dark spots on its yellow-brown fur.

A full-grown giraffe is 5.5 m tall.
The giraffe was killed with a spear.


Police are still looking for clues in their search for the missing girl.
He touched the girl on the arm to get her attention.
We have two girls, a six-year-old and an eight-year-old.


Can you give me a date for another appointment?
They never gave me a chance/choice.
If you’re found guilty, they’ll give you three years.
Can you give any evidence to support your claim?
Give me a call/ring (= phone me) when you get back from holiday.
Who is giving the speech/lecture/concert?

give up : quit

I gave up smoking two years ago.
After ten minutes trying to get the answer I gave up.

A stone hit the window and cracked the glass.
The road was covered with fragments of glass from the shattered window.
glasses : eyeglasses

Viewers must wear special 3D glasses to see the effects.


A global study has just been started to chart the effects of climate change.
Changes like this will impact on the global economy.


Tuck your gloves in your pocket so that you don’t lose them.
Those gloves look nice and warm.

go away

to leave a place:

Go away and leave me alone!
I really missed her when she went away.
We usually go away for the summer.


She wears a gold cross round her neck.
Mr Lutz was amazed to find 46 ancient gold coins inside the pot.
The bank holds large reserves of gold.


The government is trying to limit population growth.
The government is planning to increase taxes.


Lorna graduated from the University of London.
He’s a graduate in philosophy.
He graduated in physics from Cambridge University.


We’ll be attending two graduations this weekend.
After graduation, she wants to travel around Europe.


His visits gave his grandparents such pleasure.
The children usually stay with their grandparents for a week in the summer.
Her parents died when she was a baby and she was raised by her grandparents.


The grass in the back garden needs cutting.
The grass is always greener on the other side of the fence.

grasshopper /gırashapır/

A grasshopper that is 2.5 centimeters long can hop 50 centimeters: That’s twenty times its size!
Grasshoppers also use their legs to make music!
Grasshoppers, like all insects, have six legs and hops on six legs.
Kangaroos hop on two legs, while grasshoppers hop on six.


a place in the ground where a dead person is buried
He visits his mother’s grave every Sunday.

graveyard : cemetery

A graveyard is any place set aside for long-term burial of the dead, with or without monuments such as headstones.


The weather here is great.(wonderful, fantastic)
It’s great to be home.
I worked out this morning and I feel great.
You look great in that dress.
You did a really great job.


Raw coffee beans are green in colour.
Go! The light’s green.
The council has given the green light to the new shopping development.


The bride and groom walked down the aisle together.

grow up

There were lots of kids in my neighbourhood when I was growing up.
I grew up in Aksaray.


I didn’t know the answer, so I had to guess.
On the last question, she guessed right/wrong.
She asked me to guess her age.
She guessed the answer on her first try.
I’m never going to guess the answer if you don’t give me a clue.

guess what?​
used before telling someone something interesting or surprising:

Guess what? We won the game 4–0.


150 guests were invited to the wedding.
We have guests staying this weekend.
Can I try out your new bicycle? Be my guest.

guilty  ≠ innocent

I feel so guilty about forgetting her birthday.
She must have done something wrong, because she’s looking so guilty.
Don’t make me feel guilty.
I feel guilty about leaving you here all on your own.


The Gulf War, commonly refered to as the Gulf War, was the final conflict, which was initiated with United Nations authorization, by a coalition force from 34 nations against Iraq, with the expressed purpose of expelling Iraqi forces from Kuwait after its invasion on 2 August 1990.

gun : weapon

I could see he was carrying a gun.
I’ve never fired a gun in my life.
Jake was pointing a gun at the door.


People say he’s a nice guy.
Do you mean the guy with the blonde hair and glasses?
Come on, you guys, let’s go.

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