Vocabularies A-G – PART 2


He had no doubts about his team’s ability to reach the World Cup finals.
I admire his ability to listen.
The company aims to select people of outstanding ability.
She has the ability to make people feel relaxed.


Are you absolutely sure?
This cake is absolutely delicious.
He has absolutely no experience of marketing.
Jim knew absolutely nothing about the business when he joined the firm.
The burglars took absolutely everything.


Many children suffer from racial abuse at school.
An independent committee will look into alleged human rights abuses.
A self-monitoring tax system is clearly open to abuse (=able to be used wrongly).
She is continually abusing her position/authority by getting other people to do things for her.
I never expected that he would abuse the trust I placed in him.
If you abuse your body now, you’ll pay the price when you’re older.
Several of the children had been sexually/physically/emotionally abused.



The only access to the village is by boat.
The main access to (= entrance to) the building is at the side.
The children’s father was refused access to them at any time (= refused official permission to see them).
The balcony is accessed by a spiral staircase from the bar.


The students accomplished the task in less than ten minutes.
I feel as if I’ve accomplished nothing since I left my job.
Mission accomplished (=we have done what we intended to do).


Cutting the budget was an impressive accomplishment.
Playing the piano is one of her many accomplishments.
That was the greatest accomplishment of my life.

according to 

According to Sarah they’re not getting on very well at the moment.
According to our records you owe us $130.
According to my mother, you have to eat three meals a day every day.
According to a company spokesman, the firm is expected to have sales of more than $3.5 billion this year.


During a successful business career, she accumulated a great amount of wealth.
By the late 1950s, scientists had already accumulated enough evidence to show a clear link between smoking and cancer.


correct, exact, and without any mistakes:

The brochure tries to give a fair and accurate description of each hotel.
The evidence she gave to the court was not strictly accurate (=not exactly accurate).
Police believe Derek gave a reasonably accurate account of what happened.
The witness tried to give an accurate description of what she had seen.


“It wasn’t my fault.” “Don’t worry, I’m not accusing you.”
He’s been accused of robbery/murder.
Are you accusing me of lying?
The surgeon was accused of negligence.


The new president’s first act should be to end the war.
He’s been acting strangely ever since his mom died.
Stop acting like a baby.
He acted as if he’d never met me before.
Engineers acted quickly to repair the damaged pipes.

a law or formal decision made by a parliament or other group of people who make the laws for their country:

an Act of Parliament
The state legislature passed an act banning the sale of automatic weapons.


in fact or really:

I didn’t actually see her – I just heard her voice.
So what actually happened?
I didn’t actually want any more dessert, but Julia forced it on me .
We actually had a hard time moving the sofa.


A lot of people nowadays have become addicted to the internet.
By the age of 14, he was addicted to heroin.
I’m addicted to (= I very often eat) chocolate.
Fifty million Americans are addicted to nicotine.
One in seven people is addicted to alcohol or drugs.


For a goalkeeper, it’s a great advantage to have big hands.
His height and reach give him a big advantage over (= make him better than) other boxers.
I thought I’d take advantage of the sports facilities while I’m here.
I know she’s offered to babysit, but I don’t want her to think we’re taking advantage of her.
The advantage of the plan is its simplicity.
You shouldn’t be so trusting – people take advantage of you.


the fact of an event happening, an invention being made, or a person arriving:
Life was transformed by the advent of the steam engine.
Long before the advent of robots and personal computers, he invented a race of super-intelligent robots.
Many more people died of infections before the advent of penicillin.

Advent is a period lasting FOUR Sundays (not weeks!) preparing for the celebration of Jesus’ birth. The first Sunday of Advent also marks the beginning of the Christian Church s year. Because the celebration is such an important event, Christians want to make themselves completely ready.

the period of four weeks before Christmas


She had some exciting adventures in Egypt.
This book is a thrilling adventure story.
As a young man, he went off to Africa, looking for adventure.
Willis was a young man looking for adventure.
He always used to tell us about his adventures at sea.


to publicly support or suggest an idea, development, or way of doing something:
He advocates the return of capital punishment.
The author denied that his new book advocated violence.
Some extremists are now openly advocating violence.

a lawyer who defends someone in a law court

There is not much difference between a lawyer and an advocate. Lawyer is a generic or basic term for all who practice or study law, it includes the advocates as well.


This is a top-quality product at a very affordable price.
Affordable housing isn’t enough – we also need job opportunities.
They are meeting consumer demand for fashionable products at affordable prices.

afterward = afterwards

The operation was rather painful, but I felt a lot better afterwards.
We had tea, and afterwards we sat in the garden for a while.
They separated, and soon/shortly afterwards Jane left the country.
If you’re a good boy at the doctor’s I’ll take you swimming afterwards.

agonize /egınayz/

to think about a difficult decision very carefully and with a lot of effort.
He agonized for several days before agreeing to move to Oklahoma.

to spend a lot of time trying to make a decision:
She agonized for days over whether she should take the job.

agony /egıni/

very severe pain

I was in agony.
He groaned in agony.
It was agony not knowing if she would live.
He was lying on the floor in agony.

air conditioning: AC

How do you manage to work in this heat without air conditioning?
There was no air conditioning, just a ceiling fan turning slowly.
If you don’t keep the windows closed, the air conditioning can’t work properly.

Since the invention of air conditioning, we have been able to control the weather inside, and that has had some some far-reaching and unexpected effects.

air conditioner

An air conditioner to maintain normal room temperature is advisable.
In countries like India, Brazil and Indonesia, the market for air conditioners is expanding at double-digit rates.

akin to 

very similar to something
The flavor is akin to chicken.
They speak a language akin to French.


We’re not allowed to serve alcohol to people under 18.
I don’t drink alcohol or smoke.
Ted doesn’t drink alcohol anymore.
Most wines contain around twelve percent alcohol.
I could smell the alcohol on his breath.

align with

uyumlu hale getirme

This policy is closely aligned with the goals of the organization.
The desks were neatly aligned in rows.
You need to align the numbers properly in a column.
Business leaders are aligned with (= agree with) the president on this issue.

all in all

used to show that you are considering every part of a situation; considering all the different parts of the situation together:

All in all, it had been one of the most miserable days of Henry’s life.
All in all, I think you’ve done very well.


He read her letter aloud to the rest of the family.
People are starting to wonder aloud (= question publicly) whether the economic reforms have gone too far.
It would be a useful exercise for you to say the speech aloud several times.
Children love to have stories read aloud to them.
“What did you say?” “Oh, nothing, I was just thinking aloud.”
The judge asked her to read the jury’s verdict aloud.


to change something, usually slightly, or to cause the characteristics of something to change:
We’ve had to alter some of our plans.
You can alter the whole appearance of a room just by lighting it in a certain way.
Nothing can alter the fact that the refugees are our responsibility.
His mood suddenly altered and he seemed a little annoyed.


willingness to do things that bring advantages to others, even if it results in disadvantage for yourself:
She’s not known for her altruism.
Nobody believes those people are donating money to the president’s party purely out of altruism.
Many choose to work in developing countries out of altruism.


It’s amazing how often you see drivers using mobile phones.
This stain remover really works – it’s amazing!
The new theatre is going to cost an amazing (= very large) amount of money.
It’s amazing that no one else has applied for the job.


Amazingly, he was able to walk around without being recognized.
Amazingly, the book took only six days to write.
The food was amazingly good.


to correct or make small changes to something that is written or spoken
The law was amended to include women.
MPs were urged to amend the law to prevent another oil tanker disaster.
In line 20, “men” should be amended (= changed) to “people”.

amid: amidst

He sat amid the trees.
We camped that night in a shallow valley amid low hills.
The town sits amid gentle hills and dense forest.
The actors made their bows amid great applause.


a decision by a government that allows political prisoners to go free:

Most political prisoners were freed under the terms of the amnesty.
People who hand in illegal weapons will not be prosecuted during the amnesty.
The government refused to declare an amnesty for people who had not paid the disputed tax.


They spend equal amounts of time in California and New York.
Please pay the full amount (=of money) by the end of the month.
You must pay the full amount in advance.
They were making a tremendous amount of noise last night.
She eats an unbelievable amount of food.


People have lived in this valley since ancient times.
The ancient Britons inhabited these parts of England before the Roman invasion.
The ancient people of this area worshipped a huge bronze idol in the shape of an elephant.
Archaeologists study the remains of ancient civilizations.

antecedent /entisidınt/

someone or something existing or happening before, especially as the cause or origin of something existing or happening later:

Charles Babbage’s mechanical calculating engines were the antecedents of the modern computer.
Many people feel a great curiosity to find out about their antecedents.


The national anthems of the teams are played at the beginning of international football matches.
Mehmet Akif Ersoy was an Ottoman-born Turkish poet, writer, academic, politician, and the author of the Turkish National Anthem.


We don’t anticipate any trouble.
We had one or two difficulties along the way that we didn’t anticipate.
Are you anticipating a lot of people at the party tonight?
The anticipated inflation figure is lower than last month’s.
It’s always best to anticipate a problem before it arises.
I don’t anticipate (that) we’ll solve all our problems with one meeting.


My mother always gets a bit anxious if we don’t arrive when we say we will.
I saw my sister’s anxious face at the window.
It’s natural that you should feel anxious when you first leave home.
I’m anxious (eager) to get home to open my presents.


Apparently the company is losing a lot of money.
I wasn’t there, but apparently it went well.
Apparently, Jim’s a really good tennis player.
Apparently it’s going to rain today.
His resignation was apparently for personal rather than professional reasons.


I don’t think you appreciate how much time I spent preparing this meal.
I appreciate your making the effort to come.
I would appreciate it if you could let me know (= please let me know) in advance whether or not you will be coming.


He is probably the best known living architect.
Doug and Wendy worked with an architect to create their dream home.
We’re working with a team of architects on the plans for the new building.


Modernist architecture tries to conquer nature instead of working with it.
He earned a master’s degree in architecture.
He studied architecture at university.
City Hall is a fine example of Gothic architecture.
We spent most of our time in Barcelona just looking at the architecture.


This area of the park has been specially designated for children.
Software is not really my area of expertise.
Crime rates are much higher in urban areas.
Many areas of Africa have suffered severe drought this year.
The course covers three main subject areas.
There’s a nice play area for the kiddies.


A two-week armistice has been declared between the rival factions.
Since the 1953 armistice, the two sides have never signed a peace treaty.


I found him arrogant and rude.
I watched the interview and thought he seemed quite arrogant.
I never met a more conceited and arrogant young man.
He has a self-confidence that is sometimes seen as arrogance.
The authorities had behaved arrogantly, she said.


Naval gunfire and ground-based artillery are generally less accurate than many aircraft-borne weapons.
He served as an artillery officer.

as a matter of fact 

used when adding more details about what you have just said
‘Have you had many visitors yet?’ ‘No, as a matter of fact you’re the first.’
I knew him when we were in college – as a matter of fact we were on the same course.
I like almost all women, as a matter of fact.


Her ashes were scattered at sea.
We cleaned the ashes out of the fireplace.
The house burnt to ashes.
cigarette ash
volcanic ash


a small dish or container, sometimes decorative, in which people can leave cigarette ash and cigarette butts

She came up with a routine for visiting the tables, and even managed to empty a few ashtrays.


President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, in 1963.
a plot to assassinate the president


something that you accept as true without question or proof:
These calculations are based on the assumption that prices will continue to rise.
We tend to make assumptions about our staff’s ability based on very little evidence.
A lot of people make the assumption that poverty only exists in the Third World.
You’re making a lot of assumptions for which you have no proof.


an astronomical amount is extremely large:
astronomical prices, costs, etc are extremely

astute  /estut/

able to understand situations or behaviour very well and very quickly, especially so that you can get an advantage for yourself
The President’s wife is often politically astute, ambitious and very influential in White House policy decisions.
Morgan was surprised at how astute she was. “How did you know that?” he asked.

as well

Our vacation was a disaster: not only was the food terrible, the weather was awful as well.
While you’re at the store, could you get a few things for me as well?

as well as

We have a responsibility to our community as well as to our families.


I try to avoid supermarkets on Saturdays – they’re always so busy.
I’m anxious to avoid the motorway at rush hour.
Do you think Lukas is avoiding me? I haven’t seen him all day.
Try to avoid foods that contain a lot of fat.
If you want to lose weight, avoid eating between meals.
Understanding differing viewpoints is a good start toward avoiding conflict in the workplace.


He was the author of two books on Turkey.
She is also a prolific author with more than 70 books published.
The author has tried to deal with a very difficult subject.
In his preface, the author says that he took eight years to write the book.

await : wiat

He’s anxiously awaiting his test results.
The two men are awaiting trial, scheduled to begin next month.
The committee is awaiting a decision from head office before it takes any action.


“Is Oliver awake yet?” “Yes, he’s wide (= completely) awake and running around his bedroom.”
I find it so difficult to stay awake during history lessons.
I drink a lot of coffee to keep me awake.
She used to lie awake at night worrying about how to pay the bills.


to stop sleeping or to make someone stop sleeping:

They were awakened by the sound of gunfire.
I awakened at dawn to find him beside me.


Sandra had a baby (= gave birth to it) on 29 May.
Oh baby, I love you.
Their baby was born last December.
She wrapped the baby in a blanket.


(of a plan) to have the opposite result from the one you intended:

Her plans to make him jealous backfired on her when he started dating her best friend.
The company’s new policy backfired when a number of employees threatened to quit.
Trying to make your partner jealous by flirting with other people can easily backfire on you.


a strong negative reaction by a number of people against recent events, especially against political or social developments
backlash against
The 1970s saw the first backlash against the women’s movement.
The management fear a backlash from fans over the team’s poor performances.
The mayor foresaw no political backlash against his proposal.


Suzy threw the ball to Matthew.
He’s useless at sport; he can’t even catch a ball.
Just try to concentrate on hitting the ball.
She kicked the ball so powerfully that it flew over the hedge.
My golf was terrible today – I just didn’t strike the ball well.
The kids were outside playing ball.


Problems with childcare remain the biggest barrier to women.
The mountains form a natural barrier between the two countries.
Living in China was hard for me at first because of the language barrier.
Most of the technical barriers have been solved.
Passengers are requested to show their tickets at the barrier.


Waiters and waitresses provide the service to the guests and work under a bartender.


Visit our website for some basic facts about healthy eating, exercise and weight control.
Water – indeed everything basic to life here must be brought in by truck.
people’s basic needs


Our school is having its springtime bazaar next Saturday.
There are several historic bazaars in the city, together with many ultra-modern shopping malls.
I visited the İstanbul and spent hours in Grand Bazaar.


an area of sand or small stones near the sea or another area of water such as a lake:

We spent the day on the beach.
There is a beautiful sandy beach.
It’s a nice day for going to the beach.
We walked along the beach.
Our hotel was right next to the beach.


He’s growing a beard.
He shaved off his beard but kept his moustache.
Graham came back from holiday with a week’s growth of beard on his chin.


Simon always beats me at tennis.
Holland beat Belgium (by) 3–1.

They saw him beating his dog with a stick.
The child had been brutally/savagely beaten.

The doctor could feel no pulse beating.
Her heart started to beat faster.

beat around the bush
(uk also beat about the bush)

to avoid talking about what is important:

Don’t beat around the bush – get to the point!


Grace Kelly was a very beautiful woman.
She was wearing a beautiful dress.
I thought she was the most beautiful woman I’d ever seen.
The scenery around here is beautiful.


She said that people are now spending money on beauty and wellness because they realise it is good for them.
With her beauty and charm, she captivated film audiences everywhere.
The beauty of this plan (= what makes it good) is that it won’t cost too much.


You know that story of the man who wakes up and finds he’s turned into a beetle?


She’s been here since the beginning of the year.
There’s a short poem at the beginning of every chapter.
From the beginning of my career as a journalist, I’ve been writing about gender issues.
The whole trip was a disaster from beginning to end.
He had been lying to me from the very beginning.

on behalf of somebody

On behalf of the entire company, I would like to thank you for all your work.
Unfortunately, George cannot be with us today so I am pleased to accept this award on his behalf.
She wasn’t able to be present, so I signed the letter in her behalf.


to cut off someone’s head, especially as a punishment

Charles I was beheaded in 1649.


She fastened her belt tightly around her waist.
He had eaten so much that he had to loosen his belt a couple of notches.
The captain switched on the seat belt sign as we neared the airport.


Students were evaluated without bias.
The senator has accused the media of bias.
There was clear evidence of a strong bias against her.
There was a clear racial bias in the selection of candidates.
The teacher seems to have a bias towards the girls in her class.
Do I Have an Unconscious Bias?


They have a big house in the country.
She has blonde hair and big blue eyes.
The big windows make the room feel wonderfully light and airy.
That jacket looks a bit big for you.


someone who thinks that they are more important or cleverer than they really are:
He’s always boasting. He’s such a bighead!
I don’t want to seem big-headed but I frankly don’t think it will work.
I don’t want to sound big-headed, but I thought my picture was the best.

Three card brag – I’m great! I’m really handsome & I’m very rich.

How can he afford to buy himself a brand new car?
Her coat looked as if it was brand new.
A man in a brand-new pick-up truck picked me up.


They bribed the waiter to find them a better table.
He bribed the children with sweets and pocket money not to tell their mum what he’d done.
He bribed immigration officials and entered the country illegally.


We tried everything – persuasion, bribery, threats.
He was found guilty of bribery and corruption (=bribery and dishonest behaviour).


She closed her eyes against the brilliant (very bright) light.
I think that’s a brilliant (clever) idea.
Joanna came up with a brilliant idea for a new book.
She’s brilliant at handling difficult clients.
The film was absolutely brilliant (excellent).
He had a long and brilliant (very successful) career.


My brother is very broad-shouldered.
This river is over 500 metres broad at its widest point.
Amy had a broad smile on her face.
The magazine covers a broad range of subjects, from sewing to psychology.
He explained it in very broad terms.

Broadly speaking, we agree about most things.
used for saying that something is true in the most important ways

bubble gum

a type of chewing gum that you can blow into a bubble


the feeling of always being tired because you have been working too hard

Many of the teachers are suffering from burnout.


I was extremely angry but I’m feeling a little calmer now.
The pilot said we’d have to make an emergency landing, and the flight attendants tried to keep us calm.
I tried to stay calm and just ignore him.
Keep calm and try not to panic.


He died of liver cancer.
There’s still no cure for cancer.
He died last week after a long fight with cancer.


to attract someone very much, and hold their attention
He was captivated by her beauty and smile.
With her beauty and charm, she captivated film audiences everywhere.


Government troops have succeeded in capturing the rebel leader.
The town was captured after a siege lasting ten days.
The Dutch fleet captured two English ships.
Two of the soldiers were killed and the rest were captured.
Rebel forces captured the city after a week-long battle.


Finding a solution to this problem is one of the greatest challenges faced by scientists today.
You know me – I like a challenge.
Finding a cure for cancer is one of the biggest challenges facing medical researchers.
I’ve promised to finish the task by Friday, but it’s going to be quite a challenge.


He resigned from the company in order to take a more challenging job.
It’s when you find yourself in a really challenging situation that you find out what you are capable of.
The year ahead will be challenging for us all.


Read Chapter 10 before class tomorrow.
This chapter is so difficult to digest, I shall have to read it again later.
The first chapter describes the strange sequence of events that lead to his death.
The period before the revolution is an interesting chapter in British history.
That chapter of my life closed when I had a serious riding accident.

chaotic /keyotik/

a chaotic situation is one in which everything is happening in a confused way
We flew on the day after Christmas and the situation at the airport was completely chaotic.
The house is a bit chaotic at the moment – we’ve got all these extra people staying and we’re still decorating.
He’s a chaotic sort of a person – always trying to do twenty things at once.


an organization that gives money, goods, or help to people who are poor, sick etc.
Several charities sent aid to the flood victims.
All the money raised by the concert will go to charity.
I like to give a small amount of what I earn to charity.
Give your old clothes to a charity shop.
She does a lot of work for charity.
People tend to give to (= give money to) charity at Christmas time.


The company claims (that) it is not responsible for the pollution in the river.
He claims to have met the president, but I don’t believe him.
All parties have claimed success in yesterday’s elections.
An unknown terrorist group has claimed responsibility for this morning’s bomb attack.
The product claims that it can make you thin without dieting.
He claims that he didn’t see anything.


Keep away from the edge of the cliff – you might fall.
They built a house at the foot of a cliff.
Harold jumped out of the car just before it went over the cliff.
The cliffs were steep and dangerous.


The Mediterranean climate is good for growing citrus fruits and grapes.
When we retire, we’re going to move to a warmer climate.
The organizational climate here is pleasant and non-threatening.
I don’t think we should expand our business in the current economic climate.


‘I’m going to Appleby tomorrow.’ ‘What a coincidence! I’m going there too.’
It was sheer/pure coincidence that we were staying in the same hotel.
It was a remarkable coincidence that two people with the same name were staying at the hotel.
Just by coincidence, I met my old schoolmate again 50 years later.


The two nations are collaborating on several satellite projects.
Researchers are collaborating to develop the vaccine.
A German company collaborated with a Swiss firm to develop the product.
In everyday English, people usually say they work together on something rather than collaborate on something:
They are working together on some new songs.


The two playwrights worked in close collaboration (with each other) on the script.
The new airport is a collaboration between two of the best architects in the country.
The mission is being conducted in collaboration with the European space agency.
Universities and companies are working together in a spirit of collaboration to develop new solutions.


Thousands of buildings collapsed in the earthquake.
The chair collapsed under her weight.
figurative He thought his whole world had collapsed when his wife died.
Lots of people lost their jobs when the property market collapsed.
Talks between management and unions have collapsed.
He collapsed with a heart attack while he was dancing.


Colonel is the military rank between lieutenant-colonel and brigadier.
At the time, units were still known by their colonels’ names.


Australia and New Zealand are former British colonies.
India was a British colony.


to (cause to) exist together, or join together to make a single thing or group:
None of us has much money so let’s combine what we’ve got.
The two countries combined against their common enemy.
Diets are most effective when combined with exercise.

to do two activities at the same time:
She manages to successfully combine family life and/with a career.

come forward

to offer help to someone, or offer to do something
So far, only one candidate has come forward.
The police appealed for witnesses to come forward with information.
No witnesses to the accident have come forward yet, despite the police appeal.
Nobody has yet come forward with any information relating to the girl’s death.


His latest movie is described as a “romantic comedy”.
A lot of Shakespeare’s plays are comedies.


Astronomers had accidentally caught a comet in the act of turning into an asteroid.
Viewed from space, the normal progress of the survey ship was like the passage of a comet.


She is one of the most gifted comic actresses on television.
The speech had several comic touches.

(also mainly US comic book)

a magazine or book that contains a set of stories told in pictures with a small amount of writing


Tell me the truth – do I look comical (= strange or foolish) in this hat?
He looked so comical in that hat.


He hated being in the army because he had to obey commands.
The command was given to ceasefire.
The officer commanded his men to shoot.
The police commanded the driver to stop the car.


The soldiers fired as soon as their commander gave the order.
The commander paid tribute to the courage of his troops.
The commander has asked us to send reinforcements.
The troops will go into action as soon as their commander gives the word.


Our top priorities must be profit and commercial growth.
Many commercial companies are having financial difficulties.
The increased number of tourists has resulted in further commercial development.
The commercial future of the company looks very promising.


Bad dreams are fairly common among children.
These problems are common to all societies.
Jones is a very common name in Great Britain.
Foxes are common in the area.
This disease is four times more common in boys than in girls.
One common cause of homelessness is separation or divorce.


We communicated mostly by e-mail.
A teacher must be able to communicate effectively to students.
Parents sometimes find it difficult to communicate with their teenage children.
Unable to speak a word of the language, he communicated with (= using) his hands.


I was hoping she might show a little compassion.
The report criticizes his arrogance, lack of compassion, and intimidating manner.
Russell’s father had no compassion for his son’s physical disabilities.


The law will compel employers to provide health insurance.
She felt compelled to resign because of the scandal.
As a schoolboy, he was compelled to wear shorts even in winter.


determined or trying very hard to be more successful than other people or businesses |

Some US industries are not as competitive as they have been in the past.
Competitive sports encourage children to work together as a team.
The hotel offers a high standard of service at competitive rates.
(products or prices that are competitive are cheaper than others but still of good quality)


the state of working usefully together: tamamlayıcı
complementary things go well together, although they are usually different:

London’s time zone position offers a natural complementarity with New York and Tokyo for trading of securities.
The computer and the human mind have different but complementary abilities.
Bain and McCaskill have complementary skills – she is creative while he is highly organized.


to prevent something from being seen or known about:

The listening device was concealed in a pen.
I tried to conceal my surprise when she told me about her age.
Is there something you’re concealing from me?
The path was concealed by long grass.
She tried to conceal the fact that she was pregnant.


The conclusion of your essay is good, but the final sentence is too long and complicated.
I soon came to the conclusion that she was lying.
It is still too early to reach a conclusion on this point.
At the conclusion of the meeting, little progress had been made.
In conclusion, I would like to thank our guest speaker.


Politicians were quick to condemn the bombing.
She knew that society would condemn her for leaving her children.
The terrorist action has been condemned as an act of barbarism and cowardice.
The film was condemned for its sexism.
She was the only politician to condemn the proposed law on moral grounds.


Derek debated whether to telephone Charlotte Ladram and offer his condolences, but, in the end, he decided not to.
I was able to talk with visitors offering condolences, to endure two memorial ceremonies without falling apart.
May I take this opportunity to offer my condolences.
After the service, the other mourners came to offer their condolences.


New evidence has confirmed the first witness’s story.
To confirm my diagnosis I need to do some tests.
It was confirmed that the bone was broken.
Could you confirm the dates we discussed?
Six people have confirmed that they will be attending and ten haven’t replied yet.
Flights should be confirmed 48 hours before departure.
I’ve accepted the job over the phone, but I haven’t confirmed in writing yet.


There has still been no official confirmation of the report.
We’ve only received five confirmation for the conference so far.
We will send you a written confirmation of our offer shortly.
If I was in any doubt about who had eaten the cake, Jack’s chocolate-smeared face was enough confirmation!
We are still awaiting confirmation of the exact number of casualties.

a ceremony in which someone is confirmed into the Christian Church

conflict – fikir ayrılığı

There was a lot of conflict between him and his father.
It was an unpopular policy and caused a number of conflicts within the party.
Some of her actions have brought her into conflict with her managers.
You may need a lawyer to resolve a serious conflict between neighbors.


As she left the court, she was confronted by angry crowds who tried to block her way.
It’s an issue we’ll have to confront at some point, no matter how unpleasant it is.
I thought I would stay calm, but when I was confronted with/by the TV camera, I got very nervous.
We were confronted with a lot of problems when we tried to buy a house in Germany.

How Not to Confront China

a man who belongs to a congress, especially a member of the US House of Representatives

conjugate /koncugeyt/

if a verb conjugates, it has different forms to show different tenses etc.
The verb ‘to go’ conjugates irregularly.
We have to conjugate these verbs in Latin.

conjunction /kıncangşın/

a word such as ‘and’, ‘but’, ‘while’, or ‘although’ that connects words, phrases, and clauses in a sentence
The conjunction “although” joins the two clauses in the sentence “He left, although I begged him not to.”
When you write a series of nouns or adjectives, such as ‘purple, green and blue’, you use conjunction before the last one, instead of a comma.

the situation in which events or conditions combine or happen together:
Unfortunate conjunction of circumstances led to his downfall.
There is a team of writers working in conjunction (with each other) on the book.


I didn’t connect the two events in my mind.
Click here to connect to the Internet.
Please hold the line. I’m trying to connect you.
The two lakes are connected by a narrow canal.
The Golden Gate Bridge connects San Francisco with Marin County.


There is a connection between pollution and the death of trees.
Williams apparently has no connection to the case.
Police have so far failed to establish a connection between the two murders.
Students often see little connection between school and the rest of their lives.
A lot of social problems have a direct connection to alcohol or drug use.
It’s easy to see a connection between stress and illness.
Scientists have attempted to establish a connection between these two theories.
There is nothing to suggest a connection between the hospital food and the illness.


Many believe that poverty is a direct consequence of overpopulation.
Low energy may be a consequence of sleeping badly.
Taking financial risks can have serious consequences.
I’m prepared to accept the consequences of my decision.
He broke the law, and he will have to face the consequences.
She jumped into the river without considering the consequences.
The spread of information has been a direct consequence of the Internet.


Our use of harmful chemicals and the consequent damage to the environment is a very serious matter.
The drought and consequent famine struck most of the country.
Researchers may be unaware of their uncritical acceptance of categories and consequent results.


I spent most of my money in the first week and consequently had very little to eat by the end of the holiday.
All the shops were closed, and consequently, we couldn’t buy any food.
His explanation was full of technical jargon. Consequently, nobody understood it at all!


the activity of secretly planning with other people to do something bad or illegal:

The three men are accused of conspiracy.
She has been charged with conspiracy to murder.
I think there was a conspiracy to keep me off the committee.
There were many conspiracy theories (=beliefs that something is the result of a conspiracy) surrounding Princess Diana’s death.
Moon landing conspiracies continue decades after Apollo 11.


The right to speak freely is written into the Constitution of the United States.
Britain has no written constitution.
Britain’s unwritten constitution allows for flexibility when circumstances change.
The American constitution was drafted in 1787.


If the symptoms get worse, consult your doctor.
I’m not quite sure how to get there – I’d better consult a map.
He didn’t consult me about this.
This afternoon the president was consulting with his advisers.
If any of these symptoms occur while you are taking the medicine, consult your doctor immediately.
If the pain persists, consult a doctor.


After consultations with our accountants, we’ve decided how to cut costs within the company.
She spent hours in consultation with her lawyers.
We hope to work in consultation with Congress on how the law should be interpreted.


Only 27% of the paper we consume is recycled.
A smaller vehicle will consume less fuel.
The UK and France consume more gas than Italy, mainly because of their colder climates.
We consumed vast quantities of food and drink that night.


We need to cut down on our fuel consumption by having fewer cars on the road.
Consumption of electricity is always higher during the summer months because of air-conditioning.
The Government wants to reduce tobacco consumption by 40%.
Other factors can be, such as obesity, high alcohol consumption and lack of exercise.


Andy was a good husband, and Nicky was clearly very content.
We’ll be content with a respectable result in tomorrow’s match.
He seems fairly content with (his) life.
They’re content to socialize with a very small circle of people.


Stone decided to hold a contest to see who could write the best song.
I only entered the contest for fun.
Anyone over 18 years old can enter the contest.
Twenty-five countries took part in the contest.
He won a public-speaking contest at his school.

contingent on / upon sth

depending on something else in the future in order to happen:
The contract is contingent on approval by the Board of Trustees.
Buying the new house was contingent on selling the old one.
Our success is contingent upon your support.


You’re going to have to learn to control your temper.
The temperature is controlled by a thermostat.
The laws controlling drugs are very strict in this country.
The government is trying to control spending.
The finance committee controls the school’s budget.
The dictator took control of the country in 1933.


anlaşmazlığa neden olan, ihtiaflı

I tried to avoid controversial topics such as politics and religion.
The court’s decision was highly controversial.
Abortion is a controversial subject.


to persuade someone or make someone certain:
He managed to convince the jury of his innocence.
It’s useless trying to convince her (that) she doesn’t need to lose any weight.
I hope this will convince you to change your mind.
We tried to convince my grandfather to live with us.
I’ve been trying to convince Jean to come with me.


My boyfriend says I’d like going on a camping trip, but I’m not convinced.
I’m convinced (that) she is lying.
John agreed, but she did not sound very convinced.
I was convinced that we were doing the right thing.


to act or work together for a particular purpose, or to be helpful by doing what someone asks you to do:
A two-year-old is likely to refuse to cooperate when you tell her to get dressed.
The two companies have cooperated in joint ventures for the past several years.
The Spanish authorities cooperated with the British police in finding the terrorists.


This documentary was made with the cooperation of the victims’ families.
There’s very little cooperation between the two countries.
The company produces computers in cooperation with a German firm.


to make many different things work effectively as a whole:
We need someone to coordinate the whole campaign.
A number of charities are coordinating their efforts to distribute food to the region.


the act of making all the people involved in a plan or activity work together in an organized way:
There’s absolutely no coordination between the different groups – nobody knows what anyone else is doing.

cope with

It must be really hard to cope with three young children and a job.
It’s only been a year since he died – how’s she coping?
He had so much pressure on him in his job that eventually he just couldn’t cope.


They spent $ 2 million on environmental measures, he said, and hired biologists to replant coral that would be damaged.
Fish tucked into crevices peer out, while crabs scavenge over the reef and probe soft corals for food.


something that connects two things together, especially two vehicles
The carriage at the end of the train was left stranded when the coupling broke.

when two things are joined or connected (SYN combination)

an attractive coupling of two Slavonic Dances
The couplings between members of an ecosystem are far more flexible and transient than the couplings between members of an organism.

formal an act of having sex


Haiti’s first elected president was deposed in a violent military coup.
He seized power in a military coup in 1977.
There was an attempted coup against Togo’s military dictator.
They were arrested and accused of plotting a coup against the government.
He was imprisoned for his part in a coup plot against the regime.


The light was so bright that I had to cover my eyes.
Snow covered the hillsides.
She covered him (up) with a blanket.

I keep my computer printer under a protective plastic cover.
Remove the packaging and pierce the plastic cover before microwaving.

to do someone else’s job or duty when they are absent:

I’m going to the doctor’s tomorrow, so do you think you could cover my shift for me?

from cover to cover

read sth from cover to cover

to read a book, magazine, etc. all the way through from the beginning to the end


making you feel nervous and slightly frightened

The house looked OK from the outside but inside it was all dark and creepy.
Sometimes I have the creepy feeling that you will never get your documents in order.
There’s something creepy about the way he looks at me.


The aircraft has/carries a crew of seven.
He is a member of our camera crew.
Ambulance crews battled to rescue people trapped in the wreckage.
The captain and crew would like to welcome you on board.
The plane crashed, killing two of the crew and four passengers.


The police officer told the criminal that he had the right to remain silent.
If you spend any time in prison, you’re labeled as a criminal (sabıkalı) for the rest of your life.
I was sure he was involved in some kind of criminal activity.
I think keeping animals locked up in cages is criminal.


Her work has been crucial to the project’s success.
It is crucial that the problem is tackled immediately.
The price will be a crucial factor in the success of this new product.
Parents play a crucial role in preparing their children for adult life.
Good leadership is of crucial importance in motivating staff.


the baby of a wild animal such as a lion or a bear
a five-month-old lion cub
a tiger and her cubs


to control or limit something in order to prevent it from having a harmful effect
You really need to curb your spending.
The police are trying to curb under-age drinking.
We are trying to keep a curb on their activities.

a raised edge along the side of a street, often forming part of a path for people to walk on:
She stood on the curb and waited until the light turned green to cross the street.


to make or change something according to the buyer’s or user’s needs
General Motors will customize Cadillacs for special clients.
Employees can customize the software to suit their needs.
The basic design of the vehicle has been customized to the client’s requirements.

cutting edge

the most modern stage of development in a particular type of work or activity:
a company at the cutting edge of mobile communications technology
The scientific and engineering skills which we have developed are at the cutting edge of nuclear technology.

an advantage over other people or things
The team are relying on Gregg to give them a cutting edge.


at the present time
He is currently working on his first novel.
The Director is currently having talks in the US
The device is currently available only in Japan.
He currently holds the position of technical manager.


the legal right or duty to care for someone or something, especially a child after its parents have separated or died:
The court awarded/granted/gave custody of the child to the father.
The mother got/received custody of the child.

the state of being kept in prison, especially while waiting to go to court for trial:
The suspect is now in custody.
You will be remanded in custody until your trial.


unwilling to believe that people have good, honest, or sincere reasons for doing something
The public is cynical about election promises.
Since her divorce, she’s become very cynical about men.
She has a pretty cynical view of men.
I’ve always been deeply cynical about politicians.


Many buildings were badly damaged during the war.
Strong winds had caused serious damage to the roof.
The doctors were worried that he might have suffered brain damage.
News reports damaged the senator’s reputation.
Fortunately, the fire caused only minor damage.


The refugees believe that their lives are in danger.
John is still in hospital but he is out of danger.
Firemen put their own lives in danger as part of their job.
Most birds will warn other birds when danger threatens.
Today’s police officers face danger every day.


Some of these prisoners are extremely dangerous.
It was a highly dangerous situation.
The virus is probably not dangerous to humans.
It’s dangerous for a woman to walk alone at night.


The city was plunged into darkness by the power blackout.
The lamp suddenly went out, leaving us in darkness.
The room was in total darkness.
It was late and all the houses in the village were in total darkness.
As darkness fell, rescue workers had to give up the search.


What’s the date (today)?/What date is it?/What’s today’s date?
uk Today’s date is 11 June (the eleventh of June).
us Today’s date is June 11 (June the eleventh).
What is your date of birth?
The expiry (us expiration) date of this certificate is August 2017.

the sweet fruit of various types of palm tree

They dated for five years before they got married.
How long have you been dating Nicky?


There’s no way I can meet that deadline.
We’re working to a tight deadline (= we do not have much time to finish the work).
I’m afraid you’ve missed the deadline – the deadline for applications was 30 May.
Now that the deadline is approaching we all feel under pressure.
Do you think we will be able to meet our deadline?


Our share of the market has decreased sharply this year.
Total unemployment has decreased in the past year.
There has been a steady decrease in the number of visitors.
The country’s total exports decreased by 6% in 2009.
The number of people who have the disease has decreased significantly in recent years.


to treat people so badly that they lose their good human qualities
War dehumanizes people.
Terkel says today’s society has been dehumanized by technology.


The attack on him was quite deliberate.
He definitely meant to be rude — it was quite deliberate.
We made a deliberate decision to live apart for a while.
I didn’t make a deliberate decision to lose weight. It just happened.

to think or talk seriously and carefully about something:
The jury took five days to deliberate on the case.


A strong opposition is vital to a healthy democracy.
There cannot be true democracy without reform of the electoral system.
They carried banners demanding democracy and a free press.
People will continue to view our party with suspicion until we display democracy within our organization.


The study demonstrates the link between poverty and malnutrition.
He has demonstrated the ability to meet deadlines.
These numbers clearly demonstrate the size of the economic problem facing the country.
The teacher demonstrated how to use the equipment.


Let me give you a demonstration of how the camera works.
He gave us a demonstration of the new software in use.
The rise in unemployment is just another demonstration of the government’s incompetence.

The students are holding a demonstration against the proposed changes.


to move soldiers or equipment to a place where they can be used when they are needed:

The decision has been made to deploy extra troops/more powerful weapons.
NATO’s decision to deploy cruise missiles.
UN troops were deployed to keep the peace.

The Chief of Police ordered the deployment of 300 troops to try to stop the rioting.


She suffers from periods of deep depression, when she locks herself away and will speak to no one for weeks.
He has been suffering from depression since his wife died last year.
During the past few decades, prescription drugs have also been widely used to control the symptoms of depression.
If you suffer from depression, it’s best to get professional help.


to choose someone officially to do a particular job:
Traditionally, the president designates his or her successor.
Thompson has been designated (as/to be) team captain.
She has been designated to organize the meeting.


‘Who’s the designated leaker?’

to say officially that a place or thing has a particular character or purpose:
This area of the park has been specially designated for children.
The lake was recently designated a conservation area.


The situation is desperate – we have no food, very little water and no medical supplies.
The earthquake survivors are in desperate need of help.
I had no money left and was desperate.


I worry about the destructive effect that violent films may have on children.
Lack of trust is very destructive in a relationship.
Jealousy is a very destructive emotion.


to officially prevent someone from leaving a place
Two suspects have been detained by the police for questioning.
She was detained in hospital with a suspected broken leg.
A suspect is being detained by the police for further questioning.


Your health is determined in part by what you eat.
Eye colour is genetically determine.
People should be allowed to determine their own future.
On leaving jail, Joe determined to reform.
The police never actually determined the cause of death.
Investigators are still trying to determine the cause of the fire.


something that controls or affects what happens in a particular situation:
Soil and climate are the main determinants of how land is used.
Social class is a major determinant of consumer spending patterns.
What are the determinants of supply?


Leo is very diligent in/about his work. (careful and using a lot of effort:)
Their lawyer was extremely diligent in preparing their case.
The discovery was made after years of diligent research. (done in a careful and detailed way:)


I don’t want to diminish her achievements, but she did have a lot of help.
These memories will not be diminished by time.
What he did has seriously diminished him in many people’s eyes.
We’ve seen our house diminish greatly/sharply/substantially in value over the last six months.
Later on in life the sex drive tends to diminish.


In recent years there has been an increase in weather-related natural disasters.
This region is facing an ecological disaster as a result of toxic waste.
200 people died in the train disaster.
The earthquake was the worst natural disaster to hit India for over 50 years.


Everything was in disorder, but nothing seemed to be missing.
The whole office was in a state of disorder.
He was diagnosed with a severe psychiatric disorder.
Eating disorders can be very difficult to treat.
The study suggested that 84% of prisoners have a personality disorder.
a mental/physical disorder


to spread across or move away over a large area, or to make something do this:

When the rain came down the crowds started to disperse.
Police dispersed the crowd that had gathered.
Debris from the aircraft was dispersed over a large area.
Once the seeds are released into the air, the wind quickly disperses them.


The building of a new dam will displace thousands of people who live in this area.
Millions of people who were displaced will need shelter, food and clothing.
Coal has been displaced by natural gas as a major source of energy.

dispose of

to get rid of something, especially by throwing it away:

The agency has put an end to new efforts to dispose of hazardous waste in sensitive environmental areas.
Nuclear waste can cause serious damage to the environment if not disposed of properly.


changing the traditional way that an industry operates, especially in a new and effective way:

disruptive technologies

tending to damage the orderly control of a situation:
causing problems and preventing something from continuing in its usual way.

The teacher said disruptive behavior would not be tolerated
Night work can be very disruptive to home life.


She could hear the distant sound of fireworks exploding.
At some point in the distant future, I would like to have my own house.
She heard the wind whistling through the trees and the howl of a distant wolf.
The president hopes to visit Ireland in the not too distant future (=quite soon).

After the quarrel, Sue remained cold and distant.
I don’t get mad, I get distant.


There’s a clear distinction between the dialects spoken in the two regions.
This company makes no distinction between the sexes.

In written English, people often use to draw a distinction rather than make a distinction, because it sounds more formal:

It’s sometimes very difficult to draw a clear distinction between the meanings of different words.
The law draws a distinction between temporary and permanent employees.


used to describe a respected and admired person, or their work:
a distinguished writer/director/politician
He quit his job at Cornell, ending a distinguished academic career.
Ms. Dixon comes from a distinguished Washington family.


a feeling of extreme worry, sadness, or pain:

She claimed that the way she had been treated at work had caused her extreme emotional and psychological distress.
Many of the horses were showing signs of distress at the end of the race.

Stress is simply the body’s response to changes that create taxing demands. The previously mentioned Dr. Lazarus (building on Dr. Selye’s work) suggested that there is a difference between eustress, which is a term for positive stress, and distress, which refers to negative stress.

a situation in which you are suffering or are in great danger and therefore in urgent need of help:

Six people were rescued by helicopter from a fishing boat in distress off the coast.


The front-page news was shocking and distressing.
Being in a strange city with no money was an extremely distressing situation.
It is very distressing to find out at a later date that you have made a mistake which can cost you dearly.


İstanbul is a very culturally/ethnically diverse city.
We hold very diverse views on the topic.
There is a diverse range of opinions on the issue.


Diversity is defined as the differences between people. Diversity can be real or perceived differences between people. These differences include but are not limited to race, gender, sexual orientation, religion, and socioeconomic status.

Does television adequately reflect the ethnic and cultural diversity of the country?
There is a wide diversity of opinion on the question of unilateral disarmament.
She teaches the students to have respect for different races and appreciate the diversity of other cultures.


The domestic market is still depressed, but demand abroad is picking up.
Focusing on exporting can help fight off domestic and foreign competition.
Domestic flights (=flights that stay inside a particular country) go from Terminal 1.
The president’s foreign and domestic policies have been criticized.


a large, fierce, imaginary animal, usually represented with wings, a long tail, and fire coming out of its mouth


to appear by coming out of something or out from behind something:

She emerged from the sea, blue with cold.
The sun emerged from behind the clouds.
The runway lights flashed on, and the first models emerged from behind the stage set.
No definitive results have yet emerged from the discussions.


The staff need to know what to do in an emergency.
In case of emergency, press the alarm button.
The plane had to make an emergency landing.
The government called an emergency meeting to discuss the crisis.
Do you think that you could cope with an emergency?

empirical /empirikıl/

based on what is experienced or seen rather than on theory:

This theory needs to be backed up with solid empirical data/evidence.
Empirical studies show that some forms of alternative medicine are extremely effective.

end up

to finally be in a particular place or situation:
They’re travelling across Europe by train and are planning to end up in Moscow.
Much of this meat will probably end up as dog food.
[ L ] She’ll end up penniless if she continues to spend like that.
We ended up having to postpone our vacation.
Whenever we go out to dinner with them, I always end up paying the bill.


The Council is expected to endorse the committee’s recommendations.
I fully endorse (= agree with) everything the Chairperson has said.
I certainly don’t endorse her views.
The proposal was endorsed by the majority of members.


The campaign hasn’t received any political endorsements.
Both candidates have been seeking the union’s endorsement.


We had to endure a nine-hour delay at the airport.
She’s already had to endure three painful operations on her leg.
During the war, many couples had to endure long periods of separation.


He’s very energetic, isn’t he, for a man of his age?
The dancers gave an energetic, thrilling and polished performance that delighted everyone in the audience.
If you’re feeling energetic, we could go out for a run.
I admire her because she’s so full of energy and enthusiasm.


 to be doing or to become involved in an activity
engage in/on/upon

Only 10% of American adults engage in regular exercise.
Despite her illness, she remains actively engaged in shaping policy.

to interest someone in something and keep them thinking about it:

If a book doesn’t engage my interest in the first few pages, I don’t usually continue reading it.

to become involved, or have contact, with someone or something:

She’s an intelligent child but in class she doesn’t really engage.
Just stay out of his way as much as possible, and don’t engage with him.


He earns an enormous salary.
I was absolutely enormous when I was pregnant.
She showed enormous courage when she rescued him from the fire.
The team made an enormous effort.
In the tenth century the number of houses was still relatively modest, the distances not enormous.


While there are some good lawyers, many entrepreneurs find it hard to work with one.
Being an entrepreneur is a way of fulfilling your creative potential.
He’s an entrepreneur who made his money in computer software.
Entrepreneur starts a company, arranges business deals, and takes risks in order to make a profit.


to imagine or expect that something is a likely or desirable possibility in the future:

He envisioned a partnership between business and government.
Is it possible to envision a democratic future without political parties ?


a large number of cases of a disease that happen at the same time
AIDS has become an epidemic in some countries.
Over 500 people died during last year’s flu epidemic.

a sudden increase in the number of times that something bad happens
Violent crime is reaching epidemic proportions in some cities.
Poverty in this country has reached epidemic proportions.


Both candidates received an equal number of votes.
Our education system should provide equal opportunities for all children.
All people are equal, deserving the same rights as each other.
The good thing about her as a boss is that she treats us all as equals.


The fall of the Berlin wall marked the end of an era.
The fall of the Berlin Wall marked the dawn of a new era in Europe.
We are on the threshold of a new era in European relations.
We live in an era of instant communication.


His financial problems escalated after he became unemployed.
The escalating rate of inflation will almost certainly bring escalating prices.
There are reports of escalating tensions in the area.
Any retaliation would only escalate the violence.


The use of animals in scientific tests raises difficult ethical questions.
I don’t think it’s ethical for you to accept a job you know you can’t do.
This type of advertisement may be legal, but is it ethical?
It may be feasible to clone human beings, but is it ethical?


He encouraged his students to think for themselves and to act morally and ethically.
This action is ethically questionable.
Hospitals are trying to behave ethically, and balance the medical needs of a patient against their funding.


It’s impossible to evaluate these results without knowing more about the research methods employed.
Her new book looks at how we can evaluate animal intelligence.
Employees will be evaluated on their performance, attendance, and team skills.
The research aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the training programme.
Doctors evaluate the patient’s condition.
Have they evaluated what their next step is?


Evaluation of this new treatment cannot take place until all the data has been collected.
You need careful evaluation by an experienced doctor.
It is very difficult to make a detailed evaluation.
Before filing for bankruptcy, it is advisable to get an evaluation done by a bankruptcy attorney.
We need to carry out a proper evaluation of the new system.
They took some samples of products for evaluation.


What exactly do you mean?
Please describe to the court exactly what you saw.
No one knows exactly what happened but several people have been hurt.
I don’t know exactly what’s wrong with her – I think it’s some sort of virus.
I wanted to tell him exactly what I thought of him, but I managed to stop myself.


Our biggest expense this year was our summer holiday.
We need to cut down on our expenses.
The house was redecorated at great expense.


Rolls Royces are very expensive.
Big houses are expensive to maintain.
If you send it by airmail, it’ll be very expensive.
I treated myself to a meal in an expensive restaurant.
Business class travel has become very expensive.

extant = surviving

used to refer to something very old that is still existing:
still existing in spite of being very old

We have some extant parish records from the 16th century.
Few of the manuscripts are still extant.


Chris’s behaviour that morning was quite extraordinary.
The view from up here is extraordinary.
He’s the most extraordinary man I’ve ever met.
We witnessed the extraordinary sight of an old lady climbing a tree to rescue her cat.
She has an extraordinary memory and can remember details and names that I’ve long forgotten.


Maybe the reason scientists have yet to receive signals from extraterrestrial intelligence is that there aren’t any extraterrestrial intelligence sending signals.


Earthquakes are extremely difficult to predict.
I’m extremely sorry to have troubled you.
The fungus is extremely difficult to get rid of.
They played extremely well.
She’s extremely beautiful and intelligent.


The new ramp will facilitate the entry of wheelchairs.
The current structure does not facilitate efficient work flow.
To facilitate learning, each class is no larger than 30 students.
Computers can be used to facilitate language learning.

fall apart

to break into pieces:
My poor old boots are falling apart.
Don’t be reckless or your plans may fall apart.
The book fell apart in my hands.
Tommy’s old bicycle was rusty and falling apart.
That car of yours is falling apart.
Everything was falling apart, and I didn’t know how to stop it.


We couldn’t pay the lawyer’s fee.
The students are holding a demonstration to protest against the increase in their fees.
The doctor’s usual fee is $125.
Some banks charge a fee for using other banks’ cash machines.


to praise someone in order to make them feel attractive or important, sometimes in a way that is not sincere:
I knew he was only flattering me because he wanted to borrow some money.
Perry would always flatter Mrs. Mitchell by praising her cooking.


Which flavour do you want – chocolate or vanilla?
I prefer this one because it has more flavour.
Mango has a delicious flavour.
These biscuits have a very distinctive flavour.
This wine has a delicious fruity flavour.


film or videotape that shows a single event or place:

Footage showing entire city blocks in flames flickered nightly on TV.
Detectives were studying security video footage taken from several locations around the van.
The five-minute footage was later shown on the internet as well as by foreign television networks.

for good

for ever:

She’s gone and this time it’s for good.


happening soon:
We have just received the information about the forthcoming conference.
Keep an eye on the noticeboards for forthcoming events.
He is running for a place on its ruling council in the forthcoming elections.


The painting was presented in a gilt picture frame.
She painted the window frames with great care so that no paint got onto the glass.
She wears glasses with tortoiseshell frames.

to make a person seem to be guilty of a crime when they are not, by producing facts or information that are not true:
He claimed he’d been framed by the police.


a set of ideas, rules, or beliefs from which something is developed, or on which decisions are based.

This paper provides a framework for future research.
The science people learn in school can provide the basic framework.
The agreement outlines a framework and schedule for resolving the issues.
We need a legal and political framework that is favourable to business.
The building has a flexible framework so that it can survive an earthquake.


Admission is free for children under 9.
Parking is free after 6 pm.

They have called on the government to set all political prisoners free.
He was found not guilty and walked free from the court.
We had a free and open discussion about religion.
Newspapers today are entirely free from government control.
The legislation will allow the free movement of goods through all the countries in Europe.
I’m free next weekend.
Children these days have very little free time.
Is this seat free?


I felt such a sense of freedom, up in the hills alone.
Children are allowed much more freedom these days.
In college, you have the freedom to do what you want.
Everyone should be allowed freedom of choice (= the ability to make their own choices).
Freedom of speech and freedom of thought (= the ability to say and think whatever you want) were both denied under the dictatorship.
We do not have the freedom to do just what we like.
Riding a motorbike gives me a feeling of total freedom.
We have the freedom to travel nearly anywhere in the world.


working independently for different companies rather than being employed by one particular company
She works freelance from home.
He’s freelancing for several translation agencies.
Jamie’s trying to earn a living as a freelance photographer.
Karen stayed at home while the children were small, and made a little money from freelance writing.
Sheila set up her own business called Editorial Services and now works freelance from home.
Most of the journalists I know are/work freelance.
I’m basically a freelance, and most of my work comes through various agencies.


someone who works on different projects with different companies instead of being a company employee:
He started off his career working as a freelancer at a design firm.
The online forum offers advice to freelancers, teleworkers, and companies looking for freelance staff.


The weather is just too frightful to go out.
There’s been a frightful accident.
Her hair was a frightful mess.
Later, during a frightful storm, a princess knocked at the castle door, begging for shelter.


It is frightening to think what might happen if she left him.
He found the film extremely frightening.
Going into hospital can be very frightening for a child.
It was the most frightening experience of my life.

front runner

the person or thing that is most likely to succeed in a competition
He had predicted he would win the Louisiana caucuses and be a strong runner-up to Dole, the front-runner, in Iowa.
She is one of the front-runners in the contest.
Right now he’s the front runner in next month’s elections.
With polls showing Schaefer ahead by 20 percentage points, he’s clearly the front-runner.


The company was divided into four main functional areas.
Nevertheless, it is useful and justified to look at living systems from a functional point of view.
Intel is currently preparing fully functional samples of the chips for shipment to manufacturers in the second half.
functional clothing


I was late and he was furious with me.
He’s furious about/at the way he’s been treated.
We had a furious debate about the death penalty.

Fast and Furious 7 cars

I went to several libraries to gather information about the plans.
We gathered blueberries from the bushes.
She gathered up the newspapers that were scattered around the floor.
A crowd gathered to hear her speak.


Your health is generally good, but you do have a few minor problems.
The baby generally wakes up three times during the night.
I generally get in to work by 8.00.

generally speaking

used to introduce a statement that is true in most cases but not always

Well, generally speaking (= in most situations), it’s quicker on public transport.


Senate recognizes the Armenian genocide over objections of Trump and the Turkish government.
The military leaders were accused of genocide.


stupid or silly
That was a real goofy thing to do.
I like Jim, but he’s a little goofy.
A goofy grin spread across her face when she saw the card.

Gosh !

used to express surprise or strength of feeling:
Gosh, I didn’t expect to see you here!


I’m so grateful (to you) for all that you’ve done.
If you could get that report finished by Thursday, I’d be very grateful.
I am extremely grateful for the assistance your staff has provided.
Our grateful thanks go to all who participated.


There is no tomorrow if you don’t talk greenhouse gases today.
Gladys grows a lot of tomatoes in her greenhouse.

grizzly bear

a very large bear that lives in the northwest of North America


I sat down on the ground.
We laid a blanket on the ground for our picnic.
The ground was frozen hard and was impossible to dig.

We have grounds to believe that you have been lying to us. (reason, cause)
The doctor refused to surrender patient records on grounds of confidentiality. (a reason for sthg)

If aircraft are grounded, they are prevented from flying or ordered not to fly:
If a ship is grounded, it cannot move because it has hit solid ground:

to forbid (= refuse to allow) a child or young person from going out as a punishment:
My parents grounded me for a week.


If something is groundbreaking, it is very new and a big change from other things of its type: innovative

His latest movie is interesting, but not groundbreaking.


your gums are the two areas of firm pink flesh at the top and bottom of your mouth, in which your teeth are fixed
Vitamin C is also important for healthy gums.

chewing gum = gum


an expert in a particular subject who gives advice:
I’ve become a computer guru in our department.
Peter Drucker, the management guru, has just published a new book.

Bir cevap yazın

E-posta hesabınız yayımlanmayacak. Gerekli alanlar * ile işaretlenmişlerdir


Contact Us