Vocabularies A-G – PART 3


There are fears that higher oil prices would accelerate inflation.
Inflation is likely to accelerate this year, adding further upward pressure on interest rates.
They use special chemicals to accelerate the growth of crop.

acknowledge /eknalic/

to admit or accept that something is true or that a situation exists
He acknowledges that when he’s tired he gets bad-tempered.
Claire acknowledged that she was guilty.
The government must acknowledge what is happening and do something about it.
Both defendants refused to acknowledge (accept) the authority of the court.

ad = advertisement

I often prefer the ads on TV to the actual programmes.
He finds that job ads placed in prominent papers like the Financial Times serve him well.


They fear it could have an adverse effect on global financial markets.
Climate change is likely to have adverse impacts on human health.
A lot of companies have been adversely affected by the recession.
You risk being judged adversely by some listeners whenever you give a presentation.


to cause a group to become part of or form a close relationship with another, usually larger, group, or organization:
The school is affiliated with a national association of driving schools.
The Society is not affiliated with any political party.

an organization that is connected with or controlled by another, usually larger, organization:
Our college is an affiliate of the university.

aggregate = total

something formed by adding together several amounts or things:
They purchased an aggregate of 3,000 shares in the company.
The seven companies have an aggregate turnover of £5.2 million.
The smaller minorities got an aggregate of 1,327 votes.

to bring different things together:
The company aggregates news and information from a number of sources on its website.
Sheila’s earnings from all sources aggregated $100,000.


behaving in an angry and violent way towards another person:

The stereotype is that men tend to be more aggressive than women.
If I criticize him, he gets aggressive and starts shouting.
Teachers apparently expect a certain amount of aggressive behaviour from boys.
The company is struggling to fight off aggressive competitors.


quick to see, understand, and act in a particular situation:
I’m not feeling very alert today – not enough sleep last night!
A couple of alert readers posted comments on the website pointing out the mistake.
Parents should be alert to sudden changes in children’s behaviour.

to warn someone of a possibly dangerous situation:
An anonymous letter alerted police to the possibility of a terrorist attack at the airport.
I alerted everyone I had contact with but had the choice to keep it private.


to do something that makes someone unfriendly or unwilling to support you
to make it difficult for someone to belong to a particular group or to feel comfortable with a particular person

The latest tax proposals will alienate many voters.
He felt that his experiences had alienated him from society.
Gina had become alienated from her family.


We could go to the Indian restaurant, or alternatively, we could try that new Italian place.
You could catch the 18.30 train – alternatively, you could wait for the 19.50 fast train.
It would be a six-month wait for the operation but, alternatively, you could pay for private treatment.


to officially announce that something such as a law, agreement, or marriage no longer exists:
His second marriage was annulled because he never divorced his first wife.
If an election or a contract is annulled, it is declared invalid, so that legally it is considered never to have existed.


made or done by someone whose name is not known or not made public:

The money was donated by an anonymous benefactor.
Police said an anonymous caller warned that a bomb was about to go off.
An attempt to implant an embryo using an egg from an anonymous woman donor was unsuccessful.
He received an anonymous letter threatening to disclose details of his affair if he didn’t pay the money.
For reasons of personal safety, the informant wishes to remain anonymous.


a violent attack:
He was charged with sexual assault.
UK The number of indecent assaults has increased alarmingly over the past year.
an assault on a police officer
They launched an assault on the capital yesterday.
Oregon, Washington and California are all under assault from a wildfire season of historic proportions, with the firefighting effort compounded by the coronavirus pandemic and misinformation online.

a determined or serious attempt to do something difficult:
Women’s groups have demanded a nationwide assault on sexism in the workplace.
She died heroically during an assault on the world’s second-highest mountain.

to attack someone violently:
A woman and a man have been convicted of assaulting a police officer.
He had attempted to sexually assault the woman.


Her reply astonished me.
What astonishes me most is his complete lack of fear.
Einstein’s work still astonishes physicists.


I’ve got boxes of old clothes in the attic.


The age of the candidates ranged from 29 to 49 with an average age of 37.
The average cost of making a movie has risen by 15%.
Last winter was colder than average.
My income’s rather variable, but I earn £175 a day on average.


Hannah took a step backward.
She pushed me and I fell backwards into the chair.
Count backwards from 100.
Can you say the alphabet backwards?
He took a step backwards to allow her to pass.
He began counting backwards: “Ten, nine, eight…”

my bad

used for saying that you accept that you are wrong or that something is your fault:

“You brought the wrong book.” “Okay, my bad. I’ll go get it.”


Her behavior baffled her parents.
She was completely baffled by his strange behaviour.
Even his friends were baffled by his behavior.


a system of voting, usually in secret, or an occasion when you vote in this way

The party leader is elected by a secret ballot.
Workers at the plant held a ballot and rejected strike action.
He was elected by a ballot of all the teaching staff in the college.
It was decided to hold a ballot of all party members.


something on sale at a lower price than its true value:
This coat was half-price – a real bargain.
The airline regularly offers last-minute bookings at bargain prices.
There are no bargains in the clothes shops at the moment.

an agreement between two people or groups in which each promises to do something in exchange for something else:
“I’ll clean the kitchen if you clean the car.” “OK, it’s a bargain.”
The management and employees eventually struck/made a bargain (= reached an agreement).

to try to make someone agree to give you something that is better for you, such as a better price or better working conditions:
Unions bargain with employers for better rates of pay each year.


Consumption of alcoholic beverages has increased dramatically.
Hot beverages include tea, coffee, and hot chocolate.
We do not sell alcoholic beverages.


relating to a system of counting, used in computers, in which only the numbers 0 and 1 are used:

bite the bullet

to force yourself to do something unpleasant or difficult, or to be brave in a difficult situation:

I hate going to the dentist, but I’ll just have to bite the bullet.
I decided I had to bite the bullet and take a couple of math classes even though I knew they were hard.


The marriage between the two stars was as bizarre as it was short-lived.
They tell the most bizarre stories about him.
What she was saying was rather bizarre.
A bizarre thought leaped into his mind.


When a flower blooms, it opens or is open, and when a plant or tree blooms it produces flowers:

These flowers will bloom all through the summer.


She’s got fair hair and blue eyes.
She wore a pale blue hat.
For weeks we had cloudless blue skies.
I caught a tantalizing glimpse of the sparkling blue sea through the trees.
Police are looking for a small blue car with the registration number K17 EMW.


blue-collar workers do physical work, rather than working in offices


to help someone to feel better and more positive. 

to support something, or make something stronger:

He is making a bold attempt to bolster the territory’s confidence.
Timman needs to win a game to bolster his confidence.
More money is needed to bolster the industry.
The UN is sending more troops to bolster the peacekeepers.


Were you stopped at the border?
The train crosses the border between France and Spain.
The two countries have had frequent border disputes.
Thousands of troops have massed along the border in preparation for an invasion.
Strasbourg is on the border of France and Germany.
Illegal immigrants are sent back across the border if they are caught.
The border guards stopped me and asked to see my papers.
Checkpoint Charlie used to be the most famous border crossing between East and West Berlin.

bring about

to cause something to happen:
He brought about his company’s collapse by his reckless spending.
How can we bring about a change in attitudes?
A huge amount of environmental damage has been brought about by the destruction of the rainforests.


By eight o’clock the traffic was bumper to bumper.
The traffic was bumper to bumper all the way home.


The protests were part of their campaign against the proposed building development in the area.
This is the latest act of terrorism in a long-standing and bloody campaign of violence.
The endless public appearances are an inevitable part of an election campaign.
We’ve received a lot of expressions of support for our campaign.
The campaign is aimed specifically at young people.

per capita

for or by each person

Japanese visitors’ spending per capita was much higher than average spending by tourists from other countries.
The US uses twice as much oil per capita as European competitors.


They have called a temporary ceasefire in the region.
The government had failed in numerous attempts to achieve a ceasefire through negotiation.
The ceasefire came into effect throughout the country at midnight.


The kitchen ceiling needs painting.
Windows were shattered and ceilings cracked in several nearby towns.


to repeat a word or phrase again and again
protesters chanting anti-government slogans
Protesters clapped and chanted.

to sing or say a religious song or prayer in a way that involves using only one note or tone
We could hear monks chanting as we entered the monastery.

clamp down on sth

to take strong action to stop or limit a harmful or unwanted activity:
The government is clamping down on teenage drinking.

to stop or limit an activity or the people doing it, esp. a bad or illegal activity:
Stores use electronic devices to clamp down on theft.


She was phoning from Australia, but I was amazed at the clarity of her voice.
He conveys information with great clarity.
He had only visited the village once, but remembered it with surprising clarity.
It will enable us to focus our activities and give us even greater clarity of purpose.


We’re in the same class for chemistry.
Gary came top of the class in English.
My class are going to the science museum.
The class was working on some maths problems.
There are twenty kids in the class.
She gets along well with the other children in her class.
I missed Bible class last week.
We always travel first class.


Sevgi is taller than most of her classmates.


My wedding day – and I know it’s a cliché – was just the happiest day of my life.
He seemed to believe that old cliché about a woman’s place being in the home.
The term ‘information revolution’ is a popular cliché.


a sign or some information that helps you to find the answer to a problem, question, or mystery:

Police are still looking for clues in their search for the missing girl.
I’m never going to guess the answer if you don’t give me a clue.


(especially of moving objects) to hit something violently:
The two vans collided at the crossroads.
It was predicted that a comet would collide with one of the planets.
The two cars collided with an ear-splitting crash.

to clash; conflict:
Their views on the matter collided.
For Prisoners in the West, the Virus and the Wildfires Are Colliding Threats.


No one knew how many troops had died in combat.
The government is spending millions of dollars in its attempt to combat drug abuse.
We must try to combat poverty and illiteracy.
A conference will be held on how to combat the pollution of the oceans.


I fail to comprehend their attitude.
He doesn’t seem to comprehend the scale of the problem
I’ll never comprehend why she did what she did.
I don’t think he fully comprehends that she won’t be here to help him.


complete and including everything that is necessary:

We offer you a comprehensive training in all aspects of the business.
Is this list comprehensive or are there some names missing?
He has written a fully comprehensive guide to Rome.

Comprehensive insurance gives financial protection against most risks, for example including damage to a driver’s own vehicle as well as to other vehicles:

It is a common misconception that car hire insurance is comprehensive.


an agreement in an argument in which the people involved reduce their demands or change their opinion in order to agree:
It is hoped that a compromise will be reached in today’s talks.
In a compromise between management and unions, a four percent pay rise was agreed in return for an increase in productivity.
The government has said that there will be no compromise with terrorists.

to accept that you will reduce your demands or change your opinion in order to reach an agreement with someone:
Party unity is threatened when members will not compromise.
Well, you want $400 and I say $300, so let’s compromise at/on $350.


Car insurance is compulsory.
Maths and English are compulsory for all students.
Compulsory education was introduced in 1870.
Wearing a seat belt is compulsory.


proving that something is true, or ending any doubt:

They had conclusive evidence/proof of her guilt.
The investigation failed to provide any conclusive evidence.
We still have no conclusive proof that Walters was at the scene of the crime.


There seems to be some confusion over who is actually giving the talk.
To avoid confusion, the twins never wore the same clothes.
There is a confusion in the public mind between psychology and psychiatry.


to strengthen the position of power or success that you have, so that it becomes more effective or continues for longer
The company has consolidated its position as the country’s leading gas supplier.
She hoped that marriage would consolidate their relationship.

to combine things in order to make them more effective or easier to deal with
We consolidate information from a wide range of sources.


a disease that is contagious can be passed from person to person by touch

The patient is still highly contagious.
Most eye infections are contagious.
People with measles are highly contagious.
Chicken pox is a highly contagious disease.


While there are similarities in the two cultures, there are also great contrasts.
There’s a marked contrast between his character and hers.
There’s a striking contrast between what he does and what he says he does.
The birth rate for older women has declined, but, by contrast, births to teenage mothers have increased.
The stock lost 60 cents a share, in contrast to last year, when it gained 21 cents.


to (cause something or someone to) change in form or character:
Could we convert the small bedroom into a second bathroom?
What’s the formula for converting pounds into kilograms?

to change to a new religion, belief, opinion, etc., or to make someone do this:
He converted to (= started believing in) Catholicism when he got married.


to express a thought, feeling, or idea so that it is understood by other people:

His poetry conveys a great sense of religious devotion.
Please convey our condolences to the family.
I tried to convey in my speech how grateful we all were for his help.
You don’t want to convey the impression that we’re not interested.
All this information can be conveyed in a simple diagram.
Ads convey the message that thin is beautiful.

corporate /korpırıt/

We have to change the corporate structure to survive.
Analysts are expecting share prices to fall in the first quarter of next year because of poor corporate earnings.
The rating assesses the average risk of payment default of corporates in the country.
Organizational memory (OM) (sometimes called institutional or corporate memory) is the accumulated body of data, information, and knowledge created in the course of an individual organization’s existence.
Corporate culture refers to the shared values, attitudes, standards, and beliefs that characterize members of an organization and define its nature. Corporate culture is rooted in an organization’s goals, strategies, structure, and approaches to labor, customers, investors, and the greater community.


Every year, countless agonising deaths occur through the pollution of rivers from factories or oil spillages at sea.
This view has been expressed countless times in the past four centuries.
There are countless arguments against this ridiculous proposal.
Countless times when I needed someone to talk to, she would listen.


to burn a dead person’s body, usually as part of a funeral ceremony

Then their bodies were cremated at night to conceal the evidence.
Here, the dead were cremated to enable their souls to ascend to the light.


if you are critical, you criticize someone or something

Many economists are critical of the government’s economic policies.
He made some highly critical remarks.

something that is critical is very important because what happens in the future depends on it

These talks are critical to the future of the peace process.
It is absolutely critical for us to know the truth.
Foreign trade is of critical importance to the economy.


extremely unkind and unpleasant and causing pain to people or animals intentionally:
Don’t tease him about his weight – it’s cruel.
Children can be very cruel to each other.

extremely unkind and intentionally causing pain:
Her classmates made some cruel remarks.
Is the death penalty cruel and unusual punishment?
I think it’s cruel to put a dog in a cage.


to break, or cause something to break, into small pieces:
She nervously crumbled the bread between her fingers.
The cliffs on which the houses are built are starting to crumble.
That old wall is starting to crumble.

to become weaker in strength or influence:
Support for the government is crumbling.


a law that forces people to stay indoors after a particular time at night, or the time people must be indoors

The government imposed a night-time curfew throughout the country.
The curfew was lifted (=ended) on May 6th.
The whole town was placed under curfew.
He was shot for breaking (= not obeying) the curfew.


to reduce or limit something, or to stop something before it is finished:

He had to curtail his speech when time ran out.
The Federal Reserve raised interest rates slightly to curtail inflation.
The new law will curtail police powers.
Then their freedom is curtailed, their choices limited and their frustrations increased.


Ella drew the curtains and switched the light on.
Shall I open the curtains?
Would you mind opening the curtains?
Before the curtain went up, the dancers took their places on stage.

cut off

the act of stopping the supply of something:

The US has announced a cutoff of military aid to the country.
The US has threatened to cut off economic and military aid.

a fixed point or level at which you stop including people or things: deadline

31 March is the cutoff date for applications to be accepted.


using the internet where you work, during working hours, for activities that are not related to work
Cyberloafing results in lost productivity and could even land companies in legal hot water.


Daisies are attractive flowers, often associated with innocence and purity. They may seem the simplest flowers in the world, but there are many interesting things that set these flowers apart. They’re great for a game of s/he loves me, s/he loves me not. If you’re ever in doubt about the nature of your relationship, you can just pluck the petals of a daisy one by one, alternating, s/he loves me with s/he loves me not. When you pluck the last petal, you have your answer. And hey, if you don’t like the first answer, you can try again with another daisy.


The disease causes thousands of deaths a year.
Do you believe in life after death?
He never got over the death of his daughter.
The failure of the family business was the death of him.
That child will be the death of me (= is always doing something which upsets me)!


The deceased shot her mother before killing herself.
Five of the deceased were employed by the club.


His interest in the project declined after his wife died.
The party’s popularity has declined in the opinion polls.
The higher prices caused a sharp decline in sales.
The last three years have seen a dramatic decline in the number of tigers in the area.
Her health has been declining progressively for several months.


to criticize something or someone strongly and publicly:
The government’s economic policy has been denounced on all sides.
We must denounce injustice and oppression.
The teachers denounced the contract offer as inadequate.


Their helicopter could not land because of the dense jungle.
The land around here is covered with dense vegetation.
Britain has a particular problem because of dense population.
They had to clear a road through an area of dense forest.

Aerial view of dense forest. Background with evergreen trees.

to make someone leave a country and return to the country they came from, especially because they do not have a legal right to stay
He was deported from Ecuador when his visa expired.
Two foreign journalists who reported the protests were deported.
Thousands of illegal immigrants are caught and deported every year.
The refugees were deported back to their country of origin.


the action of forcing someone to leave a country, especially someone who has no legal right to be there or who has broken the law:
There were mass deportations in the 1930s, when thousands of people were forced to leave the country.
Their cases will be reviewed and they may face deportation.


the scientific study of the skin and its diseases


to dislike and have a low opinion of someone or something

She despised her neighbours.
I felt that the other kids despised me for having the wrong accent and the wrong colour skin.
We were brought up to despise the people from the poor side of town. They seemed so dirty and ignorant.


to notice something that is partly hidden or not clear, or to discover something, especially using a special method:

Radar equipment is used to detect (= find the position of) enemy aircraft.
Some sounds cannot be detected by the human ear.
Financial experts have detected signs that the economy is beginning to improve.


causing harm or damage:
These chemicals have a detrimental effect/impact on the environment.
Their decision could be detrimental to the future of the company.


Acid rain has a devastating effect on the forest.
The recession has had a devastating impact on employment in this area.
The party suffered a devastating defeat in the local election.
All had suffered devastating effects from the war.

The devastating Notre Dame Cathedral fire, in 19 photos https://www.vox.com/world/2019/4/15/18311852/notre-dame-cathedral-fire-spire-collapse-photos-pictures-paris-france

The shops are always full of new electronic devices.
One day it will be technically possible to replace patients’ hearts with mechanical devices.
The company makes devices to detect carbon monoxide.


She devised a method for quicker communications between offices.
Our aim is to devise a way to improve quality and reduce costs.
He’s good at devising language games that you can play with students in class.
He devised a new way to treat mental depression.


His condition was diagnosed as some type of blood disorder.
She was diagnosed with/as having diabetes.
Joe struggled in school before he was diagnosed as dyslexic.
She was diagnosed with breast cancer.


to allow someone officially to leave somewhere, especially a hospital or a law court:
Patients were discharged from the hospital because the beds were needed by other people.
More than half of all prisoners discharged are reconvicted within two years.
UK A peace protester was conditionally discharged for twelve months (= allowed to go free only if they do not commit a crime again for this period of time).


Newborn babies can discriminate between a man’s and a woman’s voice.
She felt she had been discriminated against because of her age.
In order to increase the number of female representatives, the selection committee decided to discriminate in favour of women for three years.
Police dogs can discriminate between the different smells.
It is illegal to discriminate on the basis of race, sex, national origin, or age.


a feeling of unhappiness and disappointment:
Aid workers were said to have been filled with dismay by the appalling conditions that the refugees were living in.
The fans watched in/with dismay as their team lost 42–11.
She discovered, to her dismay, that her exam was a whole month earlier than she’d expected.
She discovered, to her dismay, that she had locked her keys inside her car.


What amazes me is her complete disregard for anyone else’s opinion.
He told us to disregard everything we’d learned so far and start again.
The writer has shown a reckless disregard for the truth.
He ordered the jury to disregard the witness’s last statement.
Mark totally disregarded my advice.


agitated with doubt or mental conflict or pain
extremely worried, nervous, or upset:
The missing child’s distraught parents made an emotional appeal for information on TV.
Of particular concern are phony contractors, who knock on the doors of distraught homeowners and offer to repair damaged roofs or remove fallen trees.


There are few schools in the rural districts of Bangladesh.
He works in San Francisco’s financial district.
The bomb exploded in a crowded shopping district.


to sell an asset, a business, or part of a business, or to reduce the amount of investment in something:

The company will be divesting some assets that no longer fit its profile.
We have made a decision to divest from the hotel and casinos business to focus more on drinks sales.
The company is divesting its less profitable business operations.


another word for disinvestment

the act of selling off a business or businesses, or of no longer investing money in something:

a campaign to encourage divestment from fossil fuels


He refuses to let others speak and dominates every meeting.
They work as a group – no one person is allowed to dominate.
It’s astonishing to think that only a few years ago Communism dominated eastern Europe.
It was the story that dominated the headlines this week.


He made a large donation to Cancer Research.
Please help our campaign by sending a donation to Friends of the Earth.
The party received a £100,000 donation from a local businessman.
She made generous donations to various charities.
The charity confirmed it had received an anonymous donation of £100,000.


a white or grey bird, often used as a symbol of peace

someone in politics who prefers peace and discussion to war


to make something seem less important than it really is

Grandma downplays the seriousness of her health problems.
The government has been trying to downplay the crisis.


The number of deaths has risen to more than two dozen.
Dozens of people were killed.
We collected dozens and dozens of shells on the beach.
She’s had dozens of boyfriends.


I read the first draft and thought it was very good.
The second draft of the agreement contained a few important changes.
Could you let me see a rough draft of your report?
He showed me the final draft of his letter.

(UK draught)
a current of unpleasantly cold air blowing through a room

Could you close the window? There’s a draft in here.

Eastern (Standard) Time

the time on the eastern coast of the United States and Canada:
For all major US stock markets, after-hours trading is 16:00 – 18:30 Eastern Standard Time


The points of the compass are north, south, east, and west.
Which way is east?
Most of the country, except the east, is rural.
Her home is in the east of France.
According to the map, the village lies about ten kilometres to the east of here.
The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
The transcontinental railway goes from New York in the east to San Francisco in the west.
There will be rain showers in the east.
The climate is cooler in the east of the country.
The army had been positioned to the north and east of the city.


He would never do anything to endanger the lives of his children.
We must be careful not to do anything that might endanger the economic recovery.
Revealing that information might endanger our national security.


I really enjoyed that movie/book/concert/party/meal.
I want to travel because I enjoy meeting people and seeing new places.
Enjoy your meal!
He’s enjoying himself at his job.

Enjoy Yourself!


Debbie and Christa have just got engaged.
She was engaged to some guy in the army.
They’re engaged to be married in June.


This cable should have a plug at one end and a socket at the other.
We damaged the end of the piano when we moved it.
Get to the end of the queue and wait your turn like everyone else.
Our house is the third from the end on the left.
Is it safe to stand the computer on (its) end?
I always like to leave my desk clear at the end of the day.
The end of the play was much more exciting than I’d expected.
This latest injury must surely mean that her tennis career is now at an end (= finished).
The statement said there would be no end to the violence until the terrorists’ demands were met.

When is your meeting due to end?
Her resignation ends months of speculation about her future.
Their marriage ended in 1991.
The game ended in a draw.
I’d like to end with a song from my first album.
She ended her speech on an optimistic note.
Our arguments always end in tears.
She ended her speech on an optimistic note.


The dolphin had become entangled in/with the fishing nets.
Mr. Kalnins is lying in bed, entangled in the covers.
He went to the shop to buy bread and got entangled in/with (involved) a carnival parade.
The mayor and the city council are anxious to avoid getting entangled in the controversy.


Entrenched ideas are so fixed or have existed for so long that they cannot be changed:
It’s very difficult to change attitudes that have become so deeply entrenched over the years.
The organization was often criticized for being too entrenched in its views.


the point on the earth’s surface directly above the origin of an earthquake:
The Great Nicobar islands lie at the closest point to the epicenter of the earthquake.

An epicenter is also the place that has the highest level of an activity:
The U.S. cannot simply assume that it will remain the epicenter of scientific research and technological innovation.


to become or make something become greater or more serious:

His financial problems escalated after he became unemployed.
Sending in more troops would escalate the
The escalating rate of inflation will almost certainly bring escalating prices.
You might need to escalate the issue to the next highest level management team.

euthanasia /yutenezya/

Euthanasia is the practice of killing someone who is very ill and will never get better in order to end their suffering, usually done at their request or with their consent.


Some water evaporates to form clouds.
The high concentration of sugars forms a syrup when the sap evaporates.
Plants keep cool during the summer by evaporating water from their leaves.
Halfway through the movie reality evaporates and we enter a world of pure fantasy.
The issue of global warming is not just going to evaporate.


in the end, especially after a long time or a lot of effort, problems, etc.:

Although she had been ill for a long time, it still came as a shock when she eventually died.
It might take him ages but he’ll do it eventually.


In the movie, the hero has to rescue the world from an evil scientist.
Poverty is one of the greatest social evils of our time.
You have to teach your kids about right and wrong, good and evil.

Good and Evil and Road to Heaven or Hell Concept

to use or spend time, effort, or money:

You expend so much effort for so little return.
Governments expend a lot of resources on war.
People of different ages expend different amounts of energy.
Manufacturers have expended a lot of time and effort trying to improve computer security.
A great deal of time and money has been expended on creating a pleasant office atmosphere.


Management have agreed to extend the deadline.
The bar has recently extended its opening hours (= made them longer).
I need to extend my visa (= make it last longer).
The government has extended the ban on the import of beef until June.
We plan to extend the kitchen by six feet.

formal to officially offer someone help, sympathy, thanks etc

We’d like to extend a warm welcome to our French visitors.
I’d like to extend my thanks to all the catering staff.
The Coroner extended his sympathy to the victim’s family.
The Headteacher has extended an invitation to the prime minister to visit the school.


Someone’s ex-wife is the woman they were once married to.


You look fabulous!
The room has fabulous views across the lake.
She looked absolutely fabulous in her dress.
They’ve got a fabulous apartment in the centre of Paris.
We had a fabulous time at the party.


Hopes of a peace settlement are beginning to fade.
Over the years her beauty had faded a little.
My memory of childhood fades as time goes by.
Her worries about her job have faded into the background since she learned about her father’s illness.
If you hang your clothes out in the bright sun, they will fade.


Could you do me a favour and tell Kelly I can’t make it?
Paul, can I ask you a favor?
I owed him a favour so I couldn’t say no.
She helps me out when I have too much to do, and I return the favour when I can.
Do yourself a favour and make sure you get some time to yourself.
Could you do me a favour and lend me £5?


People are fearful of rising crime in the area.
She looked red-eyed and white-faced, slightly fearful and anxious.
He hesitated before calling her, fearful of what she might say.
She’s fearful (that) she may lose custody of her children.

flu = influenza

She’s very hot and shivery, so I think she must have flu.
There are lots of people off school this week with flu.
Robby has a bad case of the flu.
Steven’s still in bed with flu.
She’s got the flu.
I couldn’t go because I had flu.


I’m sure there are some folk who would rather they weren’t here.
Thanks to the folks at NBC.
Ordinary folk can’t afford cars like that.
Can the folks at the back hear me?


to refuse to allow something, especially officially, or to prevent a particular plan of action by making it impossible:
The law forbids the sale of cigarettes to people under the age of 16.
He’s obviously really embarrassed about it because he forbade me to tell anyone.
He is forbidden from leaving the country.

to not allow something, or to order someone not to do something:
You can’t forbid me to go.


not allowed, especially by law:
Smoking is forbidden in the cinema.
The use of cameras in this museum is strictly forbidden.
The sale of alcohol is forbidden here.
The athletes are forbidden from using proscribed drugs.
Marriage between close relatives is forbidden in most societies.
Any form of hunting or fishing within the wildlife reserve is strictly forbidden.


There was a picture of the Trevi fountain on the front of the book.
We sat in the chairs that are set out in summer around a fountain.


the crime of getting money by deceiving people:
the crime of deceiving people in order to gain something such as money or goods:
They spent ten years in jail for fraud.
Convicted of tax fraud, he was sentenced to two years in prison.
He says he’s been everywhere and done everything, but I think he’s a fraud.


the part of a building, object, or person’s body that faces forward or is most often seen or used:
The front of the museum is very impressive.
He spilled soup all down the front of his shirt.
He was lying on his front.
The actor walked out to the front of the stage.
The shop front occupies a very prominent position on the main street.

the part of a vehicle that is nearest to its direction of movement:
Do you want to sit in the front (= next to the driver)?
If we sit near the front of the bus, we’ll have a better view.

close to the front part of something:
There’s parking space in front of the hotel.


The function of the veins is to carry blood to the heart.
I’m not quite sure what my function is within the company.
A thermostat performs the function of controlling temperature.
It’s a disease that affects the function of the nervous system.
You’ll soon learn how the office functions.
The television was functioning normally until yesterday.
I’m so tired today, I can barely function.

fuzzy = blurred

if a sound or picture is fuzzy, it is unclear 
Some of the photos were so fuzzy it was hard to tell who was who.

not clear:
The basic facts of the story are starting to emerge though the details are still fuzzy.
My head’s a little fuzzy (= I cannot think clearly) this morning after all that wine last night

get up

He never gets up before nine.
Will you get me up at six tomorrow?
The whole audience got up and started clapping.
The referee urged both players to get up.
After the fall, he got up and dusted himself off.
Get up and show your appreciation.
He knocked the drink over as he was getting up from the chair.
‘Don’t get up. I’ll let myself out.’
Dad got up on the wrong side of bed, and he’s been grumpy all day.


a gigabyte :

I don’t get why people want to buy something that only has 14.5 gigs of useable memory.


We went into the house.
I went to Paris last summer. Have you ever been there?
We don’t go to the cinema very often these days.
Wouldn’t it be quicker to go by train?
Does this train go to Newcastle?
Where do you think you’re going? Shouldn’t you be at school?
We go shopping every Friday night.
I’ve never gone skiing.
They’ve gone for a walk, but they should be back soon.
[ + to infinitive ] She went to meet Blake at the station.
There’s a good film on at the Odeon. Shall we go?
She went peacefully in her sleep.
This road goes to Birmingham.
A huge crack went from the top to the bottom of the wall.
The idea of going grey doesn’t bother me, but I’d hate to go bald.
Her father’s going senile/blind/deaf.
If anything goes wrong, you can call our emergency hotline free of charge.
After twelve years of Republican presidents, the US went Democratic in 1992.


a worthless brick that appears to be of gold
something that appears to be valuable but is actually worthless
a person who shirks assigned work

my goodness !

My goodness, you have spent a lot!


The governor has denied making improper use of state money.
Governors from most of the 50 states will meet in Omaha this weekend.

the person in charge of an important organization such as a country’s central bank

Turkey has fired its central bank governor as policy differences between the government and the bank deepen in the face of an economic slump, volatility in the lira currency and high inflation.


important and large in degree:
She has all kinds of grand ideas.
His job has a grand title, but he’s little more than a clerk.

a thousand pounds or dollars
The car cost him 15 grand.
On receipt of my father’s letter, I got drunk and sent him a cheque for twenty grand.


The gravestones I can still read give only names and dates.


The grief she felt over Helen’s death was almost unbearable.
We didn’t say much, but his grief was obvious.
Her grief at her son’s death was terrible.
She couldn’t cope with the grief she felt inside.
It took her years to get over her grief at the death of her mother.
I had no idea that forgetting my driver’s license would cause me so much grief (= trouble).

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