Vocabularies H-P – PART 2

hale and hearty

someone, especially an old person, who is hale and hearty is very healthy and active

She’s still hale and hearty at 74.
Her grandfather was hale and hearty, walking five miles each day before breakfast.

hard line (take)

to deal with someone or something in a very firm or strict way and refuse to change your opinion or decision
The government is taking a hard line over tax avoidance.


I do believe it is possible for different ethnic groups to live together in harmony.
As producer and director, the Coen brothers work together in perfect harmony.
The two friends continued to live in harmony.
There was a quiet sense of harmony between them as they walked along.
Imagine a society in which everyone lived together in (perfect) harmony.


the nut of the hazel tree

However, most of the conventional hazelnut producers were also applying manure in addition to synthetic fertilizers.


The newspaper’s front-page headline read simply ‘Prime Minister resigns’.
Celebrity divorces have made big headlines.
Le Monde ran its famous banner headline ‘ We are all Americans now’.
Madonna’s adoption of the child grabbed world headlines.
News from Iraq continued to dominate the headlines.


A large range of herbs and spices are used in South Asian cooking.
Mash the potatoes and then mix in the butter and herbs.


herbal remedies


The town takes great pride in its architectural heritage.
These monuments are a vital part of the cultural heritage of South America.
The area has been designated a world heritage site.


Heroin is obtained from morphine and is extremely addictive.
She died from a heroin overdose.
23 people were arrested and large quantities of heroin were seized in a dawn raid.
He was arrested at the airport with a kilo of heroin secreted in his clothing.

hilarious = funny

The film was absolutely hilarious.
You should read this book – it’s hilarious.
He didn’t like the film at all – I thought it was hilarious.
Her jokes are absolutely hilarious.

hit the road/trail

to begin a journey
We packed up and hit the road.
Time to hit the road again.


At the school she discovered the call had been a hoax.
The bomb threat turned out to be a hoax.
He’d made a hoax call claiming to be the president.
President Trump said he had a “tremendous week” with the “impeachment hoax” and called the whistleblower “fake” during an event with NCAA athletes.


For many people the horseshoe is a symbol of good luck.


We thanked our hosts for a very enjoyable evening.
The local language school is advertising for host families (= families people stay with when they are visiting another country).
She thanked the hosts for their hospitality.
Japan is playing host to the next international conference.
Which country is hosting the next Olympic Games?




How come?

used to ask someone why or how something happened
How come you’ve ended up here?
“I didn’t even eat lunch today.” “Really? How come?”
“She’s moving to Alaska.” “How come?”
How come the sky is blue?

hub = central part

the central and most important part of an area, system, activity etc, which all the other parts are connected to 
Birmingham is at the hub of Britain’s motorway network.
The city has become a hub for Asian markets and a financial center.
Chicago is a major transportation hub, with the busiest airport in the US.

An Innovation Hub is a place which provides facilities to nurture new ideas and help develop inquisitive perspective in youths of today.


New York is very hot and humid in the summer.
Tokyo is extremely humid in midsummer.
The air was hot and still and humid.


The temperature is almost 80 degrees, and the humidity 35%.
Tomorrow will be hot, with high humidity.
Some plants need warmth and high humidity.


We’ve driven a/one hundred miles in the last two hours.
“How many children are there in the school?” “About three hundred.”
That dress costs hundreds of dollars.
There were hundreds of people at the pool today.
I agree with you a hundred percent.


She confessed to her husband that she had sold her wedding ring.
She met her husband through a dating agency.
Their marriage fell apart when she found out about her husband’s affair.
My main aim in life is to be a good husband and father.

ideal /aydiyıl/

perfect, or the best possible:

She’s the ideal person (= exactly the right type of person) for the job.
In an ideal world no one would go hungry.

a principle that sets a high standard for behavior:

I think most people share the same ideals and basic beliefs.


Even the smallest baby can identify its mother by her voice.
The gunman in Wednesday’s attack has been identified as Lee Giggs, an unemployed truck driver.
The police officer identified himself (= gave his name or proved who he was) and asked for our help.
You need to identify your priorities.


The ancient people of this area worshipped a huge bronze idol in the shape of an elephant.
Basketball players are his idols.
She is the idol of countless teenagers.
Muhammad Ali was my idol when I was a boy.


He seems to be immune to colds – he just never gets them.
The mice seemed to be immune to the effects of the drug.
She’s an experienced politician, but she’s not immune to criticism.
The vaccine would make infants immune to bacteria that can cause middle ear infections.



We need to assess the impact on climate change.
Higher mortgage rates have already had a major impact on spending.
Winning this competition could have a big impact on my life.
The industry has a huge impact on the environment we live in.
Population growth has a profound impact on world food demand.
The product quickly made an impact on the market.
High-interest rates have a negative impact on spending.


especially in the US, to formally accuse a public official of a serious offence in connection with their job:

He was suspended and later impeached amid a $60 million financial scandal.
The governor was impeached for the wrongful use of state money.
Congress voted to impeach the President, but he resigned before any action was taken.


the act of making a formal statement that a public official might be guilty of a serious offence in connection with his or her job, especially in the US:

The federal judge faces impeachment.
Trump moves one giant step close to impeachment…


These mountain villages are completely inaccessible in winter.
A long flight of stairs made the center inaccessible to disabled visitors.
Environmental dialog has become the domain of experts, inaccessible to anyone without a PhD.
The books and articles are written in language that many find inaccessible.

Inaccessible Island

The airline inaugurated its first nonstop flight to Moscow last year.
The European Community inaugurated the Single European Market in 1993.
He wants to inaugurate his museum with elaborate opening ceremonies.


existing naturally or having always lived in a place; native:
The Navajos are among the indigenous people of North America.
Blueberries are indigenous to America.


Archaeologists think the silk possibly came from India.
In India, many people do not eat some kinds of animals.
In India, red is a symbol of pure things, and it is used a lot during marriage ceremonies.
In India, vegetarian food is traditional.


Each individual receives two genes, one inherited from each parent.
Ordinary individuals need no more than 3–5 grams of salt per day.
Each student must be treated as an individual.
The rights of the individual must be protected.
The policies are based on respect for the individual.


Most of the country’s industry is in the Northwest.
The computer industry has been booming.
I work in the oil industry.
Agriculture is still a major industry in Scotland.
Tourism is a growing industry in many parts of the developing world.

inertia /inörşa/

lack of activity or interest, or unwillingness to make an effort to do anything:

The organization is stifled by bureaucratic inertia.

the tendency not to change what is happening:

Many teachers were reluctant to use computers in their classrooms simply out of inertia.


The accident was the inevitable consequence/result/outcome of carelessness.
Accidents are the inevitable result of carelessness.
The factory closure is seemingly inevitable.
When you’re working such long hours, it’s inevitable that your marriage will start to suffer.


The furniture is inexpensive but well-made.
Painting is a relatively inexpensive way to enhance your home.


For some inexplicable reason, he’s decided to cancel the project.
For some inexplicable reason, he felt depressed.
For some inexplicable reason, some rooms of the mansion will suddenly turn very cold.



Jim found the library staff friendly and informative.
The lecture was very informative and helpful.
The informative newsletter is published once every two months.


We use only natural ingredients in our products.
Nowadays much of what we eat contains artificial ingredients.
You should check the list of ingredients on fruit juice cartons.
Trust is a vital ingredient in a successful marriage.


to cause something to begin:

Who initiated the violence?
They have decided to initiate legal proceedings against the newspaper.
Intellectuals have initiated a debate on terrorism.

initiate word on keyboard button
initially=at the beginning

at the beginning:
The building was used as a bank initially, but it is now used as a restaurant.
Initially, most people approved of the new plan.
Stan initially wanted to go to medical school.
Initially, I thought I would only stay there a year.


originality by virtue of introducing new ideas


a person who stays one or more nights in a hospital in order to receive medical care:

His insurance company is unwilling to pay for inpatient treatment.


For the last ten years of his life, he was clinically insane.
informal I sometimes think I’m going insane (= I feel very confused).
It would be insane not to take advantage of this opportunity.
Why did you do that? Have you gone insane?
It would be insane to try to go camping in this kind of weather.


Hearing voices inside your head is a common symptom of insanity.
It would be insanity to expand the business now.


The plumber is coming tomorrow to install the new washing machine.
Andrew, can you help me install this software?
We will install your washing machine free of charge/for free.


Birds build nests by instinct.
Her instinct told her that something was wrong.
I have faith in your business instinct.
I’ve trusted my instincts in the past and they’ve usually been right.
You should obey your instincts when dealing with strangers.


The insurance doesn’t cover you for (= include) household items.
It is a legal requirement that you have insurance for your car.
It took the insurance company months to settle my claim.
When my bike was stolen, I claimed on the insurance and got £150 back.
Most insurances won’t cover you if you take part in any dangerous sporting activities.


Did you leave his name out by accident or was it intentional?
The damage was not intentional but I was still annoyed.


My daughter-in-law said that I was interfering, but I was only trying to help.
It’s not the church’s job to interfere in politics.
She tried not to interfere in her children’s lives.
It’s not your problem, so don’t interfere.
The protestors were peaceful, and the police decided not to interfere.


to frighten or threaten someone into making them do what you want.

They tried to intimidate the young people into voting for them.
He’s being kept in jail until the trial so that he can’t intimidate any of the witnesses.
They were intimidated into accepting a pay cut by the threat of losing their jobs.

intuition = instinct

the ability to understand or know something because of a feeling rather than by
We should trust our intuitions.
Intuition told her it was unwise to argue.
People had an intuition that something was not right.
If you think there’s something wrong about the situation, you should trust your intuition.
She thought the baby would be a girl, and her intuition was correct.


The state police are investigating the incident.
The study investigates the impact of violent TV programming on children.
I heard a noise and went downstairs to investigate.
We are of course investigating how an error like this could have occurred.
The UN is investigating new methods of population control.


The investigation continued for nearly three years.
A private detective was hired to conduct the investigation.
An investigation has been underway for several days into the disappearance of a 13-year-old boy.
The bank conducted its own internal investigation into the robbery.


She knew that by failing her finals she could jeopardize her whole future.
It took so long to get herself back because both her professional and personal independence were jeopardized by motherhood.
The country’s economic future is seriously jeopardized by the mass emigration of young people.
Three women refused to testify, fearing it would jeopardize their careers.


to make a repeated gentle ringing sound, or to make things do this:
She waited for him by the car, jingling the keys in her hand.
He jingled the coins in his pocket.

a short song or tune used in advertisements
He earned a living writing advertising jingles.


They were filled with joy when their first child was born.
Listening to music is one of his greatest joys.
He was flooded with joy when his first child was born.
His daughters were the joys of his life.


Christmas is such a joyful time of year.
Christmas is a joyful occasion for children.
The streets of the city were filled with joyful crowds celebrating the New Year.


a young person below a particular age who is involved in an activity, especially sport:

Saturday morning sessions are for juniors only.
My sister is my junior by three years (= three years younger than me).
I object to being told what to do by someone junior to me.


I can’t really justify taking another day off work.
It was the only thing that I could do – I don’t have to justify myself to anyone.
I don’t have to justify myself to you or anyone else.
Nothing justifies murdering another human being.
No matter what the circumstances, street violence cannot be justified.


relating to a young person who is not yet old enough to be considered an adult:
He studied both adult and juvenile crime.
Juvenile crime is an increasing problem in big cities.
Some of the boys tried to involve me in their juvenile pranks, but I wasn’t interested.


Switch off the computer and unplug the keyboard.
The computer comes with a wireless mouse and keyboard.
The width of piano keyboards became standard in the mid-1800s.
I prefer to use the keyboard rather than a mouse.

labyrinth /labirint/

Finally, through a labyrinth of corridors she found his office.
a labyrinth of underground tunnels


There’s a young lady here to see you.
Good evening, ladies and gentlemen, and welcome to our show.
Ladies and gentlemen, may I have your attention.
The young lady at reception sent me up here.

lance = mızrak

a long thin pointed weapon that was used in the past by soldiers riding on horses



Los Angeles is the second-largest city in the US.
The T-shirt comes in Small, Medium and Large.
A large number of students have signed up for the course.
The hotel was quite large and very cold.

at large

if a dangerous person or animal is at large, they have escaped from somewhere or have not been caught

The escaped prisoners are still at large.

lead (past tense “led” )

I think we’ve chosen the right person to lead the expedition.
A nurse took her arm and led her to a chair.
I’ve asked Gemma to lead the discussion.
Who will be leading the inquiry into the accident?
Beckham led his team to victory.

Ten years of scientific research led to the development of the new drug.
Discussions with lawyers led him to believe that the company would not sue him.


Some relatives are now considering legal action.
It would be impossible to get control of the company without a long legal fight.
The legal speed limit is 30 mph.


The dance was based on several Hindu legends.
She is writing a thesis on Irish legend and mythology.
Legend has it (= people say) that he always wore his boots in bed.
Local legend has it that (=says that) the island was the original Garden of Eden.


For most citizens, liberty means the freedom to practise their religious or political beliefs.
Hundreds of political prisoners are to be given their liberty in Turkey (= released from prison).
Turkey is slowly moving towards democracy and economic liberty.
The Constitution promises liberty and justice to all citizens.


the state of being lonely

Loneliness concept illustration. A crowd in a circle with one person alone in the center

Tammy felt very lonely when she first arrived in New York.
Our neighbor George is a very lonely man.
It’s better to keep trying to find love than to live a lonely life.
I saw what a cold, lonely life awaited me in this country.
I could not see the boy, and there was nothing else in that lonely place.

look back

to think about something that happened in the past:
When I look back I can see where we went wrong.
It wasn’t such a bad experience when I look back on it.
When I look back, I’m filled with sadness.
One day we’ll look back on this and laugh.


Many parents feel a sense of loss when their children leave home.
He suffered a gradual loss of memory.
There will be substantial job losses if the factory closes down.
He suffered hearing loss from testing aircraft engines.
She must be feeling very lonely after the loss of her husband.

low mood

What is the difference between low mood and depression?
Everyone feels low or down from time to time and that’s quite normal. We’ve all experienced situations in which we have felt upset, angry, worried or sad.


a disease that you can get from the bite of a particular type of mosquito (= a small flying insect). Malaria causes periods of fever and makes you shiver and feel very cold. It is common in many hotter parts of the world.
In his magazine, he published formulas for animal manures and prescriptions for the cure of snake bites and malaria.
Some progress was made upon a few, particularly the reduction of major epidemics of malaria, cholera, smallpox, and yellow-fever.


Many of the refugees are suffering from severe malnutrition.
Many of the children showed signs of malnutrition.
Among the millions who die each year through malnutrition, there are many children of the Kingdom.


Crash helmets are mandatory for motorcyclists.
The Council has made it mandatory for all nurses to attend a refresher course every three years.
Wearing a helmet when riding a motorcycle is mandatory.
Athletes must undergo a mandatory drug test before competing in the championship.
In 1991, the British government made it mandatory to wear rear seat belts in cars.

Mandatory sentences are those sentences which a judicial officer is required to impose regardless of the circumstances of the offense. In other words, the judicial officer has no discretion to impose a higher or lower sentence depending upon the nature of the crime. Typically, people convicted of certain crimes must be punished with at least a minimum number of years in prison. Among other arguments, advocates claim that mandatory sentences will deter criminals, while opponents claim it is unfair to lead to prison overcrowding. Mandatory sentencing laws vary by federal and state laws. the term is given to the sentence that is a minimum period of time a criminal needs to serve without parole, suspension or probation.


the work of advertising and offering goods or services for sale: pazarlama
She’s the director of marketing.
The reason their cars sold so well was that they had a brilliant marketing strategy.
Mr. Harris was previously director of sales and marketing


They have a massive house.
She died after taking a massive overdose of drugs.
If the drought continues, deaths will occur on a massive scale.
The system is capable of recording massive amounts of information.


I’m in the process of collecting material for an article that I’m writing.
The sculpture was made of various materials, including steel, copper wire, and rubber.
She bought some pretty dress material.
The island has to import oil and other raw materials (=materials used for making things).


The prime minister met many civic leaders, including the mayor and the leaders of the immigrant communities.
We need a mayor who is tough enough to clean up this town.
The mayor has promised to cleanse the city of drug dealers .
The mayor and the city council are anxious to avoid getting entangled in the controversy.


He said a few meaningless words to his hostess and looked around the room.
Chinese characters are just meaningless symbols to me.


Carl’s starting college in September. Meanwhile, he’s traveling around Europe.
It’s going to take several days for my car to be repaired – meanwhile, I’m renting one.
Cook the sauce over medium heat until it thickens. Meanwhile, start boiling the water for the pasta.
The flight will be announced soon. Meanwhile, please remain seated.
I knew I wouldn’t get my exam results for several weeks, and I wasn’t sure what to do in the meanwhile.


He accused the US of meddling in China’s internal affairs.
You have no right to come in here meddling with my things.
Church leaders shouldn’t meddle in politics.
My sister’s always meddling in other people’s affairs.
People shouldn’t meddle with things they don’t understand.


to treat someone with a medicine:

Patients are usually medicated with tranquilizers before having anesthesia.

medicated soap or shampoo contains a substance to help small medical problems of your skin or hair


The family has a history of mental disorder.
A doctor was asked about the mental state of the prisoner.
Stress can affect both your physical and mental health.
Many people suffer from some form of mental illness during their lives.
You need to develop a positive mental attitude.


Sailors told stories about mermaids and people believed them.
The sailors saw sea animals called manatees and thought they were mermaids.
There are stories about mermaids in many different countries.
They went home and told stories of an animal that was half-woman and half-fish – a mermaid.


I think we should try again using a different method.
Today’s methods of birth control make it possible for a couple to choose whether or not to have a child.
Which payment method do you use when travelling?
Scientists have devised a method of recycling contaminated oil.
Travelling by train is still one of the safest methods of transport.
The new teaching methods encourage children to think for themselves.


a person’s way of thinking and their opinions:
It’s extraordinary how hard it is to change the mindset of the public and the press.
American financiers have a very different mindset from ours.
The company seems to have a very old-fashioned mindset.


Only a minority of people supported these new laws.
People from ethnic minorities often face prejudice.
She is one of a small minority of women working in engineering.
Male students are in a minority in this class.
Because the two main parties have won almost the same number of votes, the minority group holds the key to the result.


very effective or surprising, or difficult to believe:
The diet promised miraculous weight loss.
Well, you’ve made a miraculous recovery since last night.


Mark always has such a miserable expression on his face.
When I’m feeling miserable I go shopping and spoil myself – a couple of new dresses always make me feel better.
They can make your life miserable if they want to.


He has admitted misleading the police about his movements on the night of the murder.
We’re not misleading people, and we’re not pretending to be something we’re not.
The advertising campaign intentionally misled consumers about whether the product was natural.
Politicians have misled the public over the dangers of these chemicals.


The new missile is faster and more manoeuvrable than previous models.
The missile strike was devastating – the target was totally obliterated.


In an attempt to give new momentum to their plans, the committee set a date for starting detailed discussions.
Opposition to the tax has been gaining momentum.
There is worrying evidence that the economy is losing momentum.
The agreement was small, but it gave new momentum to the talks.


a monumental achievement, piece of work etc is very important and is usually based on many years of work
Charles Darwin’s monumental study, ‘The Origin of Species’
There was a monumental traffic jam on the freeway.
Rebuilding the bridge proved to be a monumental job.

most likely

Most likely he’ll turn up late.


very many of the same type, or of different types:
We made multiple copies of the report.
These children have multiple (= many different) handicaps.
Our produce is shipped from multiple locations around the country.
Having multiple partners increases your risk of sexual diseases.


When I got home, I found a mysterious message sellotaped to the front door.
She wondered who’d sent her the mysterious email.
The police are investigating the mysterious deaths of children at the hospital.
There’s something mysterious going on.
She hid her thoughts behind a mysterious smile.
What’s that mysterious noise?

naive = saf

too willing to believe that someone is telling the truth, that people’s intentions, in general, are good, or that life is simple and fair. People are often naive because they are young and/or have not had much experience of life:
She was very naive to believe that he’d stay with her.
It was a little naive of you to think that they would listen to your suggestions.


As a child, Juliana had a very sensitive nature.
It’s not really in her nature to be aggressive.
As a young man, he loved hiking and being close to nature.
We grew up in the countryside, surrounded by the beauties of nature.


The government refuses to negotiate with terrorists.
The two sides have to negotiate.
UN representatives are trying to negotiate a ceasefire.
I’ve managed to negotiate (= get by discussion) a five percent pay increase with my boss.


to meet people who might be useful to know, especially in your job:
I don’t really enjoy these conferences, but they’re a good opportunity to network.
It’s important to build up a network of professional contacts.
The conference provided some excellent opportunities for networking and she made some useful business contacts.


important, interesting, excellent, or unusual enough to be noticed or mentioned
A notable feature of the church is its unusual bell tower.
Getting both sides to agree was a notable achievement.
This attractive building is particularly notable for its woodland setting.
She worked with many notable musicians.


unable to stop thinking about something; too interested in or worried about something:
Why are people so obsessed with money?
The kids are obsessed with video games.
A lot of young girls are obsessed by their weight.


one of a set of prizes given each year in the US to the best film, the best male and female actor in any film, and to other people involved in the production of films:

The movie won Oscars for best costumes and best screenplay in this year’s awards.
The Oscar ceremony takes place in March every year.


Mike’s father was an officer in the US Marines.
The document must be certified by the proper officer of the state.
It took around fifty officers two hours to bring it under control.


Number Ten Downing Street is the British prime minister’s official residence.
The Queen will attend the official opening of the theatre in June.
Before buying a pram, make sure that it conforms to the official safety standards.
The name of the new director will be officially announced in June.


She was omitted from the list of contributors to the report.
I’d be upset if my name were omitted from the list of contributors.
Please don’t omit any details, no matter how trivial they may seem.
In his presentation of the theorem, Kelvin omitted many details.

In everyday English, people usually say leave out rather than omit:
Please don’t leave out any details, no matter how trivial they may seem.



a sudden appearance of something, esp. of a disease or something else dangerous or unpleasant:
Doctors are very concerned about an outbreak of tuberculosis in an East London School.
There’s been an outbreak of food poisoning at the hotel.
The system started to operate in late 1914, a few months after the outbreak of war in Europe.


an angry protest by a lot of ordinary people

The closure of the local hospital has caused a huge public outcry.
Despite an outcry, the university refused to change its admission policies.
The release from prison of two of the terrorists has provoked a public outcry.


shocking and morally unacceptable
It is outrageous that these buildings remain empty while thousands of people have no homes.
It’s outrageous that the poor should pay such high taxes.


an effort to bring services or information to people where they live or spend time:
social responsibility = the process of an organization building relationships with people in order to advise them, for example about health or financial problems:

Its outreach program is strictly volunteer.
We’re now doing a lot of outreach in the local community.
outreach centers for drug addicts


the beginning:

I told him at/from the outset I wasn’t interested.
From the outset we planned to conduct our research together.


expressing strong opinions very directly without worrying if other people are offended:
She’s an outspoken critic of U.S. policy.
Mr Masack is an outspoken critic of the present government.

overall = genel olarak

The overall cost of the exhibition was £400,000.
The overall result is an increase in population.
The overall situation is good, despite a few minor problems.
Overall, it has been a good year.


not done, paid, returned, etc by the time expected
I must take these books back to the library – they’re overdue.
The baby was a week overdue (=it was expected to be born a week ago).
She feels she’s overdue for promotion.
A visit from Mrs. Brocklebank was long overdue.


to provide a view of, especially from above:
Our hotel room overlooked the harbour.
The house is surrounded by trees, so it’s not overlooked at all (= it cannot be seen from any other buildings).

to fail to notice or consider something or someone:
I think there is one key fact that you have overlooked.
No one will be overlooked when we select players for the team.

to forgive or pretend not to notice something:
I’m prepared to overlook his behaviour this time.


Her interest in politics began to overshadow her desire to be a poet.
The achievement of the men’s team was overshadowed by the continuing success of the women’s team.
Karen has always felt overshadowed by her famous elder sister.
My happiness was overshadowed by the bad news.


to describe or explain something in a way that makes it seem more important or serious than it really is:

The impact of the new legislation has been greatly overstated.
The importance of a child’s early years cannot be overstated (=is very important).
The significance of this decline can not be overstated.


(of a disease) existing in almost all of an area or in almost all of a group of people, animals, or plants:

In some parts of the world malaria is still pandemic.
Nobody guessed that such a rare disease would become a pandemic.


permission for a prisoner to be released before their period in prison is finished, with the agreement that they will behave well:

He’s been released on parole.
He was released on parole after serving two years.
She hopes to be eligible for parole in three years.
Reynolds was sentenced to life without parole.


She must know the difference between mint and parsley, she must understand poultry and milking.
To get rid of garlic breath try strong coffee, cloves, honey, yogurt, or parsley.


I’ve been in partnership with her for five years.
The close partnership between Britain and the US will continue.
They formed a partnership solely to enter the competition.
Developing international partnerships is vital to our continued success.
The two companies have built up a close partnership over the past four years.
Theirs was a partnership based on mutual respect, trust and understanding.
Theirs was a very productive partnership.
They have signed a strategic partnership agreement with a leading mobile operator.


The strike has led to the cancellation of some ferry services and left hundreds of passengers stranded at the docks.
All passengers for flight LH103 please proceed to gate 16.
Several train passengers received serious injuries in the crash.
Fortunately, none of the passengers were badly injured in the crash.
The airplane was carrying over 500 passengers.


This is the path to the cliffs.
They followed the path until they came to a gate.
There are many paths leading to the top of the mountain.
The path to success is fraught with difficulties.

the direction or line along which something or someone is moving
The tornado destroyed everything in its path.


After a pause, he gave a careful answer.
There was a long pause and I wondered what to say next.
I waited for a pause in the conversation and then asked my question.
I pressed pause/the pause button so I could go make a cup of tea.
He paused and thought for a moment.
She paused to catch her breath, and then kept on jogging.


I’m allergic to peanuts.
Children can choke on peanuts.
We watched her munch her way through two packets of peanuts.


If he is convicted, he could receive the death penalty (=be killed as a punishment).
One of the penalties of being famous is the loss of privacy.
The maximum penalty for the offense is now three years’ imprisonment.
The protesters were told to clear the area around the building, on penalty of arrest (= or be arrested) if they did not.
Taxpayers who do not send in their tax return by the deadline will pay a £100 penalty.


Many trade disputes are pending, awaiting the outcome of the talks.
There were whispers that a deal was pending.
The identity of the four people was not made public, pending (the) notification of relatives.
His application for citizenship was still pending.


Amazingly, the bullet did not penetrate his brain.
The organization had been penetrated by a spy.
The company has been successful in penetrating overseas markets this year (= it has started selling its products in them).
Our eyes couldn’t penetrate the dark/the gloom of the inner cave.
Sunlight barely penetrated the dirty windows.


a belief or opinion, often held by many people and based on how things seem:
We have to change the public’s perception that money is being wasted.
These photographs will affect people’s perceptions of war.
These perceptions reflect those of the general public.


If she hadn’t been so persistent she might not have gotten the job.
Symptoms of the illness include a high temperature and a persistent dry cough.
There have been persistent rumors that the principal might take early retirement.
Be persistent – don’t give up.


I signed a petition against the proposed closure of the local hospital today.
They wanted me to sign a petition against experiments on animals.
Local residents have drawn up a petition to protest the hospital closure.


His mother came in carrying a pile of ironing in her arms.
Flora shuffled through a pile of magazines.
I’ve got piles/a pile of things to do today.
He had a pile of papers on his desk.
Put those clothes in a pile for washing.

pin down = get details

to make someone provide details about something or make a decision about something:
Did you manage to pin him down to a definite date?
He’s impossible to pin down.
I’ve tried asking Stephanie, but she’s proving difficult to pin down to a particular date.

to stop someone from escaping by surrounding and shooting at them if they try to escape:
[ often passive ] Government forces were pinned down by resistance fighters 30 miles north of the capital.

in the pipeline

being planned:
The theatre company has several new productions in the pipeline for next season.

being developed:
Twenty-eight lawsuits were filed this week, and another 200 cases are in the pipeline.


a problem or difficulty that is likely to happen in a particular job, course of action, or activity

He gave me advice on how to avoid the pitfalls of the legal process.
If you are aware of this you can avoid the pitfalls.
The store fell into one of the major pitfalls of small business, borrowing from suppliers by paying bills late.


We’ve got plenty of time before we need to leave for the airport.
They’ve always had plenty of money.
There’s plenty to do here.
This car cost me plenty (= a lot of money).
There’s plenty more beer in the fridge.
Eat healthily and take plenty of exercises.


a secret plan by a group of people to do something harmful or illegal
The plot to overthrow the military government was foiled (=prevented from being successful).
The plot was discovered before it was carried out.
The police have foiled a plot to assassinate the president.

the events that form the main story of a book, film, or play
The plot was a little confusing
The plots of his books are basically all the same.

pneumonia /nümonya/

a serious illness that affects your lungs and makes it difficult for you to breathe.
She was taken to hospital, suffering from pneumonia.
She’ll catch pneumonia going out without a coat in this weather!

Diagram showing lung with pneumonia illustration

a radio or television program that can be downloaded from the Internet and played on a computer or mp3 player
You can download podcasts of the ‘Today’ Programme from the BBC Website.
Some radio stations already are posting their talk shows on websites to reach podcast audiences.


I’d like to discuss the first point in your essay.
You made some interesting points in your speech.
The point is, if you don’t claim the money now you might never get it.
Please get to the point (= say the thing that is most important to you).
I think you missed (= did not understand) the point of what she was saying.

There’s no point arguing about it – we’re going and that’s that.
I’d like to write to him, but what’s the point? He never writes back.
I see little point in discussing this further.

“Look at that!” she said, pointing at the hole in the door.
Small children are often told that it’s rude to point.

point the finger at sb

to say that someone should be blamed:

I just tried to do what was right, and now everyone’s pointing the finger at me.


the act of dividing something, especially something that contains different people or opinions, into two completely opposing groups:

The polarization of society into rich and poor can clearly be seen in urban areas.
Our goal is lively discussion, not polarization.
They agreed to work together to end racial polarization.
In these days of increasing polarization, it’s easy to regard those on the other side of the argument as evil.


A large/major portion of the company’s profit goes straight back into new projects.
I accept my portion of the blame.
The rent on his portion of the apartment was $500 a month.
Two portions of French fries please.


They decided to postpone their holiday until next year.
We’ve had to postpone going to France because the children are ill.
I was really angry when she asked me to postpone my trip to help her move house.
There’s no point in postponing the event just because the weather forecast is bad.


He was one of the most powerful men in Bohemia.
Jealousy is a very powerful emotion.
The president is more powerful than the prime minister.
She’s the most powerful person in the organization.


an opportunity to see or hear about something before it is available or shown to the public:

There was a preview screening of the movie on Monday night.
Click here for an exclusive preview of our forthcoming new products.
Last night’s speech provides a preview of the campaign ahead.

pricey= pricy

The clothes are beautiful but very pricey.
Let’s not eat here – it’s too pricey.
The food’s great, but it’s a little pricey.
That restaurant’s too pricey for me.


Our primary concern is to provide the refugees with food and health care.
Many of the villagers rely on fishing as their primary source of income.
Their primary objective is to make money.
Personal safety is of primary importance.
As always, security is our primary concern.


a calculation or guess about the future based on information that you have:

The company has failed to achieve last year’s sales projections by 30 percent.
It was too early to start making specific projections about plans or projects he would like to undertake.
The strong sales caused the company to boost its industry sales projection for the year.
The President bragged that his push has resulted in 825,000 new jobs, more than 30% ahead of even the government’s optimistic projections.


information about a person’s life, work, interests, etc. on a social networking website:
You can post your relationship status on your Facebook profile.
We need to increase our company’s profile in Asia.
There is a growing number of women in high-profile positions (= positions which they are noticed) in the government.

a side view of a person’s face:
Drawing profiles is somehow easier than drawing the full face.
The actor is photographed in profile, smoking a cigarette.


His mother’s death when he was aged six had a very profound effect on him.
The speech had a profound influence on her.
The mother’s behaviour has a profound impact on the developing child.


Motor vehicles are prohibited from driving in the town centre.
The government introduced a law prohibiting tobacco advertisements on TV.
Smoking is prohibited in the building.
The law prohibits smoking in restaurants.
Children are forbidden to chew gum at school.
Prisoners are prohibited from smoking in their cells.



He was probably the most prolific songwriter of his generation.
Rabbits and other rodents are prolific (= have a lot of babies).
Strawberries are prolific in the area.


real, satisfactory, suitable, or correct:
This is Sara’s first proper job – she usually does temporary work just for the money.
If you’re going to walk long distances you need proper walking boots.
She likes everything to be in its proper place.
You have to ensure your child receives a proper education.
We didn’t have the proper tools to do the job right.
With proper treatment, she should recover completely.


The changes were first proposed last year.
In his speech, he proposed that the UN should set up an emergency center for the environment.
He proposed that we should have another meeting.
What do you propose to do about it?
How do you propose to complete the project in such a short time?

to ask someone to marry you:
I remember the night your father proposed to me.


Congress has rejected the latest economic proposal put forward by the President.
There has been an angry reaction to the government’s proposal to reduce unemployment benefits.
Have you read Steve’s proposals for the new project?
50 people voted against the new proposal.
The members are agreed that the proposal should be rejected.


It’s important to protect your skin from the harmful effects of the sun.
Patients’ names have been changed to protect their privacy.
Vitamin C may help protect against cancer.
This toothpaste has been clinically proven to protect your teeth.
We’re not doing enough to protect the environment from pollution.


New legislation still does not offer adequate protection for many endangered species.
Always wear goggles as a protection for your eyes when using the machines.
The insurance policy provides protection (= will make a financial payment) in case of accidental loss of life or serious injury.
The protection of the environment must be our first priority today.
Their tent offered little protection against the storm.


Students held a protest march against the war.
Five thousand employees came out on strike in protest at the poor working conditions.
He accepted his punishment without protest.
Lee spent five years in prison for his involvement in political protest.
Three people died yesterday in violent protests against the war.

Students from across the Twin Cities marched from St. Paul Central High School to the Minnesota State Capitol in St. Paul to demonstrate against gun violence.

Is this a public beach?
You can get the information from your local public library.
I’ve worked in the public sector all my life, mainly in local government.
We need to increase public awareness of the disease.
The public has a right to know about this.


Tickets must be purchased two weeks in advance.
The land has been purchased by the army.
No purchase is necessary for you to enter this competition.
If you wish to make a purchase, we will require your credit card details.

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