Vocabularies H-P – PART 3


used on social media for describing the general subject of a Tweet or other post (= message)

a word in a Twitter message with # in front of it, which indicates what the message is about. People can search for hashtags in order to find messages about a particular subject.


Your résumé should highlight your skills and achievements.
The report highlights the need for improved safety.
The spelling mistakes in the text had been highlighted in green.
The accident highlights the need for new safety measures.


The highway connects İstanbul and Ankara.


The coronation of a new king is, of course, a historic occasion.
‘It is a historic moment, ’ he told journalists.
Modernizing historic buildings can often do more harm than good.
How many historic buildings are damaged by fire each year?


dealing with or treating the whole of something or someone and not just a part:

My doctor takes a holistic approach to disease.
Ecological problems usually require holistic solutions.


The family were left homeless.
Providing homeless people with somewhere to stay when the weather is cold only skates round the problem, it doesn’t solve it.
The homeless sometimes have to sleep in the streets.
Thousands of people have been made homeless.
The earthquake left thousands of people homeless.


In a couple of minutes, we heard three quick honks.
Several drivers honked their horns.
I saw you guys and honked, but you didn’t see me.
The truck driver honked his horn and waited.


Henry was horrified by what had happened.
She was horrified to discover that he loved Rose.
Jessamy was horrified to find that a wave of pure jealousy was beginning to sweep through her.


The prisoner has been released for humanitarian reasons.
The United Nations is sending humanitarian aid (= food and supplies to help people) to the areas worst affected by the conflict.
Humanitarian aid is being sent to the refugees.
A humanitarian crisis (or “humanitarian disaster“) is defined as a singular event or a series of events that are threatening in terms of health, safety or well being of a community or large group of people. It may be an internal or external conflict and usually occurs throughout a large land area.


someone who says they have particular moral beliefs but behaves in way that shows these are not sincere:

He’s a hypocrite – he’s always lecturing other people on the environment but he drives around in a huge car.


perfect, with no problems or bad parts:
without any faults and impossible to criticize

His English is impeccable.
She has taught her children impeccable manners.


to officially force a rule, tax, punishment, etc. to be obeyed or received:
Very high taxes have recently been imposed on cigarettes.
Judges are imposing increasingly heavy fines for minor driving offences.
The council has imposed a ban on alcohol in the city parks.
The restrictions were imposed in 31 provinces across the country and scaled up existing curbs, under which people under the age of 20 and over 65 have been told to stay at home.

‘It was okay, but they sure impose a lot of deadlines!’

to force someone to accept something, especially a belief or way of living:
I don’t want them to impose their religious beliefs on my children.
We must impose some kind of order on the way this office is run.


impossible to imagine or think of:
It would be inconceivable for her to change her mind.
A few years ago a car fuelled by solar energy would have been inconceivable.
It is inconceivable that a man in such a powerful position could act so unwisely.


a situation that makes you feel very ashamed and not respected

Two of the diplomats suffered the indignity of being arrested.
Clint suffered the indignity of being called “Puppy” in front of his girlfriend.
They were subjected to various indignities and discomforts, including having to get dressed and undressed in public.


the unfair situation in society when some people have more opportunities, money, etc. than other people:
The law has done little to prevent racial discrimination and inequality.
sexual inequality
There remain major inequalities of opportunity in the workplace.
As students across the country start school, education experts reckon with the long-term implications of remote learning, vanishing resources and heightened inequality.

a situation in which money or opportunities are not shared equally between different groups in society:
Several polls show that one of the biggest issues on people’s minds is economic inequality.


the fact of being unable to have babies, produce young, or produce new plants: kısırlık

Chemotherapy often causes infertility as a side effect.
Infertility treatments can result in multiple births.
They have a new approach to treating infertility.


Phil’s a diabetic and has to inject himself with insulin every day.
A large amount of money will have to be injected into the company if it is to survive.
They need to inject more money into sports facilities.
I tried to inject a little humour into the meeting.

intensive care

(in a hospital) continuous treatment for patients who are seriously ill, very badly injured, or who have just had an operation:

She needed intensive care for three weeks.


The university is doing interdisciplinary research into the impact of cellphones on the brain and body.
An interdisciplinary team of researchers are examining the disease.
The research is interdisciplinary, using several techniques: analysis of statistical sources, literature reviews, field studies and case-history material.


the action of frightening or threatening someone, usually in order to persuade them to do something that you want them to do:
The campaign of violence and intimidation against them intensifies daily.
As the election approaches, it will be difficult to prevent voter intimidation and fraud.
intimidation tactics


impossible to defeat or prevent from doing what is intended:

Last year the company seemed/looked invincible but in recent weeks has begun to have problems.
She seemed nearly invincible on the tennis court this year.


a situation in which something which was intended to have a particular result has the opposite or a very different result:

The irony is that his mistake will actually improve the team’s situation.
The tragic irony is that the drug was supposed to save lives.
Her voice heavy with irony, Simone said, “We’re so pleased you were able to stay so long.” (= Her voice made it obvious they were not pleased.)


These documents are largely irrelevant to the present investigation.
Making a large profit is irrelevant to us – the important thing is to make the book available to the largest possible audience.
We’re focussing too much on irrelevant details.


Newborn babies must be isolated from possible contamination.
It is impossible to isolate political responsibility from moral responsibility.
We used to routinely isolate people who had measles.
Their goal is to surround and isolate the town.


a detailed plan or route of a journey:

The tour operator will arrange transport and plan your itinerary.
We planned our itinerary several weeks before the trip.


The K-12 system stands for ‘from kindergarten to 12th grade’. This equates roughly to a school starting age of around five through to Grade 12 at around the age of 18. The system is broken down into three stages: elementary school (Grades K–5), middle school (Grades 6–8) and high school (Grades 9–12).


a set of things, such as tools or clothes, used for a particular purpose or activity:

I bought a new cycle repair kit.
We didn’t have our sports kit with us.
Luckily, she had her doctor’s kit with her.
I told the children to put on their gym kit and go outside.

kickback = bribe

informal money that someone pays secretly and dishonestly in return for someone’s help

The Director said that administrators at her clinic accepted kickbacks from suppliers.


The organization has launched a campaign to raise $150,000.
The local hospital has launched a campaign to raise money for new X-ray equipment.
The Canadian police plan to launch an investigation into the deal.
A test satellite was launched from Cape Canaveral.

lay off

lay somebody ↔ off to stop employing someone because there is no work for them to do

The company laid off 250 workers in December.
Millions of people have been laid off in the steel industry.

lay off (something) informal to stop using or doing something

I think you’d better lay off alcohol for a while.


a situation in which people are not allowed to enter or leave a building or area freely because of an emergency:
The Secret Service is imposing a virtual lockdown on the city.
Istanbul, Ankara and other major Turkish cities locked down for two days from midnight on Friday to combat the spread of the coronavirus under an Interior Ministry order, as the country’s death toll from the pandemic rose above 1,000.


someone who behaves in a silly or dangerous way:

He drives like a lunatic.


I’ll heat it up in the microwave.
Put the fish in the microwave and it’ll only take five minutes.


an idea that is wrong because it has been based on a failure to understand a situation:

We hope our work will help to change popular misconceptions about disabled people.
I’d like to clear up the common misconception that older workers don’t know how to use technology.

miss out

to fail to use an opportunity to enjoy or get an advantage from something:
Don’t miss out on the fantastic bargains in our summer sale.
We didn’t have a TV at home when I was young, and I felt as though I missed out.
He narrowly missed out on the world record.
We’re missing out on a tremendous opportunity.

If you miss out something or someone, you fail to include them.
An important fact had been missed out.


the number of deaths within a particular society and within a particular period of time:

Mortality rate from heart disease varies widely across the world.
Infant mortality is much higher in the poorest areas of the city.


to feel or express great sadness, especially because of someone’s death:

She was still mourning for her brother.
Hundreds of people gathered to mourn the slain president.
Depression is something we allow to happen if we choose not to mourn.


Multidisciplinary teams of scientists are working to develop nonpolluting technologies.
The multidisciplinary approach to neural networks is exciting.
He is part of a multidisciplinary team which has been working together since 1984.


Mutual respect is necessary for any partnership to work.
Successful partnerships must be based upon a sense of security and mutual trust.
Theirs was a partnership based on mutual respect, trust and understanding.
They were gossiping about parties and mutual friends.


He was naked to the waist (= not wearing clothes above his waist).
The children were half naked (= partly naked).
They stripped naked (= took off their clothes) and ran into the lake.
The children were splashing in the river, stark naked (= completely naked).


non-governmental organization :

an organization that tries to achieve social or political aims but is not controlled by a government

Co-operation between NGOs and governments is not always easy.


despite what has just been said or done:

There are serious problems in our country. Nonetheless, we feel this is a good time to return.
Despite being younger than the others, Smith was nonetheless a valuable member of the team.
There are possible risks, but nonetheless, we feel it’s a sound investment.

notorious /nötorıyıs/

famous for something bad:

The company is notorious for paying its bills late.
Brussels is notorious for its red light district and strip clubs.
He was notorious for his violent and threatening behaviour.


to make something less clear and harder to understand, especially intentionally:
She was criticized for using arguments that obfuscated the main issue.
Politicians keep obfuscating the issues.
Their explanations only serve to obfuscate and confuse.
Trump’s alternate reality of Covid-19 crumbles as the White House obfuscates


The rest of the time was occupied with writing a report.
The house hasn’t been occupied (= lived in) by anyone for a few months.
On long journeys I occupy myself with solving maths puzzles.
An increasing number of women occupy senior positions on Wall Street.
Since he retired, he has struggled to occupy his time.
Troops quickly occupied the city.


to (cause to) turn over:
The car skidded off the road, hit a tree and overturned.
One of the boats had overturned.

to change a legal decision:
The Court of Appeal overturned the earlier decision.
The court of appeals overturned her conviction and ordered a new trial.


very careful and thorough

The work had been done with painstaking attention to detail.
Chris described in painstaking detail what had happened.
The old painting was painstakingly restored.


The general has ordered a partial withdrawal of troops from the area.
On Wednesday there will be a partial eclipse of the sun.
Unfortunately, this is only a partial solution to the problem.
The operation was only a partial success.

Phenomenon of solar eclipse on March 9, 2016, Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand.
pay the price

Williams is now paying the price for his early mistakes.
He warned us that we would pay the price.


to enclose a person or animal in a small area by surrounding the area with a fence:
Sheep are penned behind the barn.
The flu kept him penned up at home for a week.

to use a pen to write or draw something with ink:
She penned (= wrote) a thank-you note.
The piece was penned by Mozart when he was eight.


The Pentagon is aiming to cut US forces by over 25 percent in the next five years.


great danger, or something that is very dangerous:
I never felt that my life was in peril.
The journey through the mountains was fraught with peril (= full of dangers).
Teenagers must be warned about the perils of unsafe sex.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has warned of the perils as people move indoors. “There is a lot of work to do in order to avoid amplification events, drive down transmission of this epidemic, protect the opening of schools and protect the most vulnerable in our society,” Dr Mike Ryan, the head of the WHO’s health emergencies programme, said.


Her work means that she spends long periods away from home.
Unemployment in the first half of the year was 2.5 percent lower than in the same period the year before.
The study will be carried out over a six-month period.
The house was built during the Elizabethan period.

She’d missed a period and was worried.
She was 12 years old when she started her periods.

There will be no more shouting, period!


Would you like another piece of apple pie?
With some of the money he got, he bought a piece of pie and a cup of coffee.


a journey to a holy place for religious reasons
Muslims try to make a pilgrimage/go on a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their life.
They set out for a pilgrimage to Rome.
Presley’s home has become a place of pilgrimage.


a small raised red spot on your skin, especially on your face


The children spent the afternoon playing with their new toys.
My daughter used to play with the kids next door.
Do you want to play cards/football (with us)?
Irene won’t be able to play in the tennis match on Saturday.
Which team do you play for?
Luke plays centre-forward (= plays in that position within the team).
He learned to play the clarinet at the age of ten.
Play us a song!/Play a song for us!
On Radio London they play African and South American music as well as rock and pop.
They could hear a jazz band playing in the distance.

play sth down

to make something seem less important or less bad than it really is:
Military spokespeople tried to play down the seriousness of the disaster.
The president’s result came after he spent months playing down the severity of the outbreak that has killed more than 207,000 in the United States and hours after insisting that “the end of the pandemic is in sight.”


When is the plumber coming to repair the burst pipe?
We’ll have to get a plumber in to look at that water tank.
The plumber is coming tomorrow to install the new washing machine.


She’s the most popular teacher in school.
That song was popular with people from my father’s generation.
Walking is a popular form of exercise in Britain.
How popular is Madonna among/with teenagers?


Something that is porous has many small holes, so liquid or air can pass through, especially slowly:
porous soil with good drainage
porous brick walls


Many people have been stockpiling food as a precaution against shortages.
They failed to take the necessary precautions to avoid infection.
The traffic barriers were put there as a safety precaution.
Vets took precautions to prevent the spread of the disease.


coming before a more important action or event, especially introducing or preparing for it:
Preliminary results show that the vaccine is effective, but this has to be confirmed by further medical trials.
We’ve decided to change the design based on our preliminary findings.


to try to discover information that other people do not want you to know, by asking questions carefully and not directly:
The interviewer probed deep into her private life.
Detectives questioned him for hours, probing for any inconsistencies in his story.
The article probes (= tries to describe and explain) the mysteries of nationalism in modern Europe.


one of the areas that a country or empire is divided into as part of the organization of its government, which often has some control over its own laws :

He was born in the China’s northwest Shanxi province in 1950.
The competition is not open to residents of Alaska, Hawaii and the province of Quebec.
The majority of people in the province are in favour of devolution.


causing thought about interesting subjects:
The programme will take a detailed and provocative look at the problem of homelessness.
In a deliberately provocative speech, she criticized the whole system of government.

If behaviour or clothing is provocative, it is intended to cause sexual desire:
She slowly leaned forward in a provocative way.


She hopes her editorial will provoke readers into thinking seriously about the issue.
The novel has provoked fierce debate in the US.
The dog would not have attacked if it hadn’t been provoked.
The introduction of the tax provoked widespread criticism.
His detention has provoked the anger of his supporters.

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