Vocabularies Q-Z – PART 3


a period of time during which an animal or person that might have a disease is kept away from other people or animals so that the disease cannot spread:
Australian airports have introduced quarantine regulations in a bid to prevent the spread of the disease.
The horse had to spend several months in quarantine when it reached Britain.

sb/sth. in question

the person or thing that is being discussed:

I stayed at home on the night in question.


He was found guilty of reckless driving.
These punks have a reckless disregard for the law.
He pleaded innocent to reckless driving charges.
She loved to ride; on horseback, she was reckless and utterly without fear.


to improve an idea, method, system, etc. by making small changes:
Engineers spent many months refining the software.
We haven’t finished refining the plan yet.
Engineers are working on developing and refining the car engines.
Volvo spent three years refining the design of their new car.

to make a substance pure by removing unwanted material:
Sugar and oil are refined before use.
Crude oil is industrially refined to purify it and separate out the different elements, such as benzene.


Someone or something that is reliable can be trusted or believed because he, she, or it works or behaves well in the way you expect:

Gideon is very reliable – if he says he’ll do something, he’ll do it.
Currently, investors do not always have access to reliable information when they need it.
The system is new, but so far it seems to be reliable.

rely on

Many working women rely on relatives to help take care of their children.
Many people now rely on the Internet for news.
The success of this project relies on everyone making an effort.
British weather can never be relied on – it’s always changing.


They were angry at the lack of parking spaces.
The hotel bar was only open to residents (= to people staying at the hotel).
He entered the United States in 1988 as a permanent resident because of his marriage to a U.S. citizen.
Many retired British people are now resident in Spain.

resurgence /risörcıns/

a process in which something starts to grow, develop, or become successful again:
There has been a resurgence of interest in telecom stocks.
If the hoped-for spending slowdown does not happen, it will lead to a resurgence in inflation.
There’s been a resurgence of criticism of the president.
People gather along the Seine river bank during sunset in Paris, on Thursday, amid the resurgence of the coronavirus.


a person or business that sells goods to customers in a shop

Retailers face their slowest business period in January and February.
Retailers have reported that consumer spending fell over the last 12 months.
Manufacturers and retailers are responding to growing consumer demand.


to hurt someone or do something harmful to someone because they have done or said something harmful to you:
If someone insults you, don’t retaliate as it only makes the situation worse.
The terrorists retaliated against the government with a bomb attack.
His first instinct was to retaliate against the attacks.


The college has revised its plans because of local objections.
We have revised our estimates of population growth.
His helpfulness today has made me revise my original opinion/impression of him.
His publishers made him revise his manuscript three times.
This third edition has been completely updated and revised.


a long gun which you hold up to your shoulder to shoot

to search quickly through something, often in order to steal something:

The safe had been rifled and the diamonds were gone.
He rifled through the papers on the desk, but couldn’t find the photographs


to give up something that is valuable to you in order to help another person:

Many women sacrifice interesting careers for their families.
She’s had to sacrifice a lot for that relationship.
We had to make sacrifices in order to pay for our children’s education.
He sacrificed his vacations to work on his book.

Better safe than sorry..

said when you think it is best not to take risks even when it seems boring or difficult to be careful


to put things such as words or letters in the wrong order so that they do not make sense:

He had a habit of scrambling his words when excited.
In this game, the letters of the words are scrambled.
The words in each sentence are scrambled.

to climb up, down, or over something quickly and with difficulty, especially using your hands to help you
They tried to scramble up the cliff.
She scrambled down the tree as quickly as she could.
We scrambled up the hill.
He scrambled over the car roof to help his colleague.


He was scratching (at) his mosquito bites.
Hannah scratched her head thoughtfully.
I’m afraid I’ve scratched your car.
Some of the prisoners had scratched their names on the walls.
The dog kept scratching at the door to be let in.

if you start something from scratch, you begin it without using anything that existed or was prepared before
We had to start again from scratch.
The company was started from scratch in 1995, but its annual sales are already over $20 million.


not having any connection with religion:
We live in an increasingly secular society, in which religion has less and less influence on our daily lives.
You use secular to describe things that have no connection with religion.
He spoke about preserving the country as a secular state.


His injuries were quite severe.
She’s suffering from severe depression.
The US faces severe economic problems.
The storm caused severe damage.
This is a school for children with severe learning difficulties.
In parts of Africa there is a severe food/water shortage.
There is expected to be a severe frost tonight.


There is a serious shortage of food in some areas.
They were suffering because of an acute shortage of doctors and nurses.
There is a desperate shortage of fresh water in the disaster area.
The United States is facing a growing shortage of information technology workers.
The water shortage was reaching crisis proportions.
There is a shortage of nurses and doctors in this area.

shut down

If a business or a large piece of equipment shuts down or someone shuts it down, it stops operating:
The company plans to shut down four factories and cut 10,000 jobs.
I’m always forgetting to shut down my computer before I go home.

shut up

I wish you’d shut up for a moment and listen to what the rest of us have to say.
Just shut up and get on with your work!
My dad never stops talking. It’s impossible to shut him up!


There were several simultaneous explosions in different cities.
A simultaneous translation was available through our headphones.
The opera will be broadcast simultaneously on television and radio.

sit back

Sit back and relax – I’ll open a bottle of wine.
Don’t just sit back and wait for new business to come to you.


very thin:
You should eat more – you’re too skinny.


We’re making slow but steady progress with the painting.
Business is always slow during those months because everyone’s on holiday.
That clock is ten minutes slow.
We were slow to understand how we could use computers in our work.
Economic growth is expected to slow.

slow down

to become slower, or to make someone or something become slower:
to become slower or less active, or to make something slower or less active:
Slow down, you two, you’re walking too fast!
You should slow down as you approach the junction.
You’d better slow down, that car was flashing its lights at you.
Growth in the business slowed down rather than increasing as expected.


an extremely infectious disease that causes a fever, spots on the skin, and often death:
çiçek hastalığı

Sadly the Archduchess died during a smallpox epidemic before the wedding took place.
Edward Jenner developed a vaccine against smallpox.
They died in epidemics of yellow fever, cholera, and smallpox.
He had very fine, fair hair and pale skin, faintly pitted by smallpox.


to rise or increase dramatically (as in position, value, or price)
Figures showed customer complaints had soared to record levels and profits were falling.
The temperature in the south will soar into the hundreds.
India’s caseload is soaring, weeks after lockdowns were eased.


People don’t socialize with their neighbours as much as they used to.
Many young women believe they have better things to do than socialize single men.
We used to socialize together and they used my garden as their flat didn’t have one.
I tend not to socialize with my colleagues.
I hope Adam’s actually doing some work at college – he seems to spend all his time socializing!

social distance

Social distancing, or physical distancing, is a set of non-pharmaceutical interventions or measures taken to prevent the spread of a contagious disease by maintaining a physical distance between people and reducing the number of times people come into close contact with each other.

souvenir /suveniyır/

something you buy or keep to help you remember a holiday or special event:

He bought a model of a red London bus as a souvenir of his trip to London.
We brought back a few souvenirs from our holiday in Mexico.


The view from the top floor is absolutely spectacular.
I felt as if I was taking part in history and the results were spectacular.
To celebrate independence day, there was a spectacular fireworks display.


to guess possible answers to a question when you do not have enough information to be certain:
I don’t know why she did it – I’m just speculating.
Journalists are speculating about whether interest rates will be cut.
It’s useless to speculate without more information.


a narrow, thin shape with a sharp point at one end, or something, especially a piece of metal, with this shape:
There were large spikes on top of the railings to stop people climbing over them.

Some types of dinosaur had sharp spikes on their tails.

a very high amount, price, or level, usually before a fall:

If price spikes continue, people will not be able to afford the new houses they want.
Parts of the Spanish capital Madrid are to be subject to lockdown restrictions to curb a rise in Covid-19, as cases across Europe continue to spike.


the effect that one situation or problem has on another situation

The weak European economy will have a spillover effect on the US dollar.
We are now witnessing a spillover of the war into neighbouring regions.

square /sıkveyr/

It’s a square-shaped room.
So you want carpet for a room that’s eight metres square (= eight metres long and eight metres wide).
The three-bedroom home is about 2,500 square feet.

step down

to leave your job or official position, because you want to or because you think you should
Morris should step aside until the investigation is completed.
He was forced to step down from his post.
Mr Orlando was forced to step down as mayor despite his popularity with the voters.


He’s really stingy and never buys anyone a drink when we go out.
The landlords are so stingy – they refused to pay for new carpets.
She’s too stingy to give money to charity.
They are rich, but they are terribly stingy.

stomp out

to stop or destroy (something bad)
They are determined to stomp out corruption.
to stop (something) from burning by stepping on it forcefully with the feet
She stomped out her cigarette.


unable to leave somewhere because of a problem such as not having any transport or money:
He left me stranded in town with no car and no money for a bus.
If the tide comes in, we’ll be stranded on these rocks.

‘They’ve forgotten us’: Thousands of Australians stranded overseas in the face of government’s stringent border controls


having a very severe effect, or being extremely limiting:
The most stringent laws in the world are useless unless there is the will to enforce them.
We need to introduce more stringent security measures such as identity cards.
Stringent safety regulations were introduced after the accident.


unable to do any more of something that you are working on because it is too difficult

Can you help me with my homework, Dad? I’m stuck.
Mum resented being stuck at home with two young kids.
We could be stuck in this place for days.
If you get stuck on a difficult word, just ask for help.


the act of giving something for a decision to be made by others, or a document formally given in this way:
No date has yet been set for the submission of applications.
The final deadline for submissions (teslim) is 21 February.
The judge will hear the defence’s submission (= suggestion)(arz, sunum) that the case be dismissed.

the act of allowing someone or something to have power over you:
They thought the country could be bombed into submission.
The teachers agreed to a special meeting, in submission to parents’ demands.


to give or offer something for a decision to be made by others:
You must submit your application before 1 January.
The developers submitted building plans to the council for approval.

to suggest:
In conclusion, I submit that the proposal will not work without some major changes.


happening or coming after something else

The first meeting will be in the City Hall, but all subsequent meetings will be held in the school.
The book discusses his illness and subsequent resignation from politics.
Those explosions must have been subsequent to our departure because we didn’t hear anything.
The mistakes were corrected in a subsequent edition of the book.
In subsequent years he said he regretted his actions.
The book was subsequently translated into 15 languages.


an important formal meeting between leaders of governments from two or more countries:
a summit meeting
World leaders will meet next week for their annual economic summit.

the highest point of a mountain:
On this day in 1784, Dr Michel Paccard and Jacques Balmat reached the summit of Mont Blanc.

Supreme Court – Yargıtay

the most important court in a country or state, especially the most important court in the US:


A surge is a sudden large increase in something that has previously been steady, or has only increased or developed slowly.
If something surges, it increases suddenly and greatly, after being steady or developing only slowly.

Specialists see various reasons for the recent surge in inflation.
Other local governments are considering similar measures as coronavirus cases surge in the state.


The surgeon did everything in her power to save him.
The surgeon was accused of negligence.
His finger was cut off when he caught it in a machine, but the surgeon was able to sew it back on.


to guess something, without having much or any proof:

The police surmise (that) the robbers have fled the country.
My surmise turned out to be right.

surpass /sırpees/

The number of multiple births has surpassed 100,000 for the first time.
The quarterly sales figures have surpassed everyone’s expectations.
His time for the 100 metres surpassed the previous world record by one-hundredth of a second.


We conducted a survey of parents in the village.
The survey showed that Britain’s trees are in good health.
The survey was carried out by Warwick University.
Our survey showed that many women are afraid to go out alone at night.
According to a survey of 606 city residents, garbage collection was the city service people liked most.


Common symptoms of diabetes are weight loss and fatigue.
The disappearance of jobs is a symptom of a deeper socioeconomic change.
Take aspirin to relieve the symptoms, and keep warm.

take heart

to feel encouraged:

Take heart. You’ll be done soon, and you won’t have to think about this paper ever again.

talk the talk but he doesn’t walk the walk

If you say that someone talks the talk but does not walk the walk, you mean that they do not act in a way that agrees with the things they say:
When it comes to recycling he talks the talk but he doesn’t walk the walk.


(of an opinion or position) able to be defended successfully or held for a particular period of time:
His theory is no longer tenable in the light of the recent discoveries.
The fellowship is tenable for (= lasts for) three years.

Meaning of tenable


The idea of parachuting out of a plane terrifies me.
Our maths teacher terrified all the children.
His looks are enough to terrify anyone.
The teacher terrified her so much, that she hated going to school.
The idea of going down into the caves terrified her.


I’ll send you a text as soon as I have any news.
I texted her to arrange a time to meet.
If I texted him and didn’t see a response within 15 minutes, I would worry.


a need for something to drink:
Hundreds of refugees collapsed from hunger and thirst.
I’ve got a terrible thirst after all that running.
He took a long drink of water to quench his thirst.
Many of the animals had died of thirst.

a strong wish:
He’s always had a thirst for adventure.


These toys are made from tough plastic.
After some tough bargaining, we finally agreed on a deal.
We need a mayor who is tough enough to clean up this town.
We’ve had to make some very tough decisions.
My boss has given me a tough job/assignment.


Police found tyre tracks in the mud.
The hunters followed the tracks of the deer for hours.
The burglars were careful not to leave any tracks behind them.

to search for a person or animal by following the marks they leave behind them on the ground, their smell etc
Police have been tracking the four criminals all over Central America.
It’s difficult to track an animal over stony ground.
The military use radar satellites to track targets through clouds and at night.


to completely change the appearance, form, or character of something or someone, especially in a way that improves it
The new haircut completely transformed her.
Increased population has transformed the landscape.
When she smiled, her face was completely transformed.
The new system transformed the way managers thought about their money.
Well, you’ve certainly transformed this place – it looks great!
Whenever a camera was pointed at her, Marilyn would instantly transform herself into a radiant star.


In recent years, the movie industry has undergone a dramatic transformation.
It is rare for a person to undergo a dramatic transformation in his political thinking, but it does happen.
Her friends and neighbors watched her transformation from shy local girl to famous movie actress.


causing a major change to something or someone, especially in a way that makes it or them better: (hayatını değiştirebilecek)

Several protesters said these experiences can be transformative — a way to learn new strategies and new ways to organize.
Our goal is to create a global hub for cognitive and brain science at the university that can partner with private and public entities for responsible development of this transformative technology.
When you meet and talk to a homeless person and you change your views on poverty and politics, the encounter with the homeless person is an example of a transformative encounter.


We have tripled our output over the past two years.
The workforce has tripled in size since the new factory opened.
We expe


My fingers were so cold that I couldn’t undo the buttons.
I wish it was possible to undo what I’ve done.
Maybe there was still time to undo the damage?
Can someone help me to undo my seat belt?
It’s very difficult to undo the damage that’s caused by inadequate parenting in a child’s early years.


more than is necessary, acceptable, or reasonable:
There’s no need to be unduly pessimistic about the situation.
He believes this approach would unduly harm the nation’s economy.
To be considered for publication, letters should not be unduly long.
His family was not unduly worried when he did not call home immediately.
Financial contributions unduly influence the selection of athletes for sports teams.


Strong support for the war has unified the nation.
His music unifies traditional and modern themes.
If the new leader does manage to unify his warring party it will be quite an achievement.


It was a time of drought and despair, of the Dust Bowl, of unimaginable suffering.


to make a complicated subject or problem, or its different parts, clear and able to be understood:

It took years to untangle the legal complexities of the case.
Firemen eventually managed to untangle the frightened child from the bars by prising them apart.


The normal supply of water has turned brown and unusable.
The virus deletes files and corrupts essential core microchips, leaving computers unusable.


a strong wish, especially one that is difficult or impossible to control:
The two of them seem unable to control their sexual urges.
The urge to steal is very strong in some of these young men.

to strongly advise or try to persuade someone to do a particular thing:
Lawyers will urge the parents to take further legal action.
Investigators urged that safety procedures at the site should be improved.

urticaria /artikerya/

a skin condition in which a person’s skin develops red, raised areas


The library’s great collection allowed me to utilize many rare sources.
We must consider how best to utilize what resources we have.
The old fire station could be utilized as a theater.
Employers must utilize their workers more effectively if the region is to become an economic success.


Doctors worried that there would not be enough vaccine for everyone who needed it.
Those at risk are being urged to have the vaccine as soon as possible.
If the vaccine appears safe, tests of its effectiveness will begin in as many as 3,500 people next year.

vanquish /venkuviş/

to defeat an enemy or opponent, especially in war:
Napoleon was vanquished at the battle of Waterloo in 1815.
The vanquished army surrendered their weapons.

to defeat completely:
Smallpox, a once deadly disease, has now been vanquished.


British weather is perhaps at its most variable in the spring.
The demand for the company’s products is variable.
There are too many variables in the experiment to predict the result accurately.
The variables in the equation are X, Y, and Z.


solunum cihazı

a machine that helps people breathe correctly by allowing air to flow in and out of their lungs:

He was brought into intensive care shortly after the accident and immediately put on a ventilator.


used to describe something that quickly becomes very popular or well known by being published on the internet or sent from person to person by email, phone, etc.:
Here’s a list of the top ten viral videos this week.
Within days the film clip went viral.
Recently, a video that went viral on Chinese social media showed a woman crying hysterically after receiving her positive test result in a Beijing shopping mall.


Something that is virtual can be done or seen using a computer and therefore without going anywhere or talking to anyone:
virtual shopping

virtual reality

a set of images and sounds, produced by a computer, that seem to represent a place or a situation that a person can take part in


Their twins are virtually identical.
That wine stain on my shirt has virtually disappeared.

using a computer to do or see something instead of going to a place or talking to a person:
Nowadays all these things can be experienced virtually.
This year, instead of boarding buses and lugging backpacks, most of those students are opening their laptops at home as schools commence the fall term virtually amid the pandemic.


They are trying to stop the spread of the flu virus.
He does not know when he contracted the virus.
He is suffering from an ankle injury and a virus infection.
Evidence suggested that the AIDS virus was spreading very quickly among the heterosexual community.
I don’t know exactly what’s wrong with her – I think she has some kind of virus.
A local doctor was the first to raise the alarm about this latest virus.


You should wear something light-coloured when you’re cycling at night so that you’re more visible.
The writing on the tombstone was barely visible.
There are few visible signs of the illness that kept her in hospital for so long.
The comet should be visible to the naked eye.


She took advantage of me when I was at my most vulnerable.
We work mainly with the elderly and other vulnerable groups.
Children are most vulnerable to abuse within their own home.
I felt very vulnerable, standing there without any clothes on.
Tourists are more vulnerable to attack, because they do not know which areas of the city to avoid.
Older people are especially vulnerable to cold temperatures even inside their homes.


a complete failure:
The party was a washout – hardly anyone came.
The dance was a washout – only three people showed up.
“The year’s a washout,” he said in an interview. “It’s a complete washout.”

an event or sports competition that is prevented from happening or stopped early because of heavy rain


A lot of teachers expect the situation to worsen over the next few years.
Relations between the two countries have steadily worsened.
Conditions for many minority groups have worsened.
As the company’s financial problems worsened, several directors resigned.


to cause something to happen in a violent and often uncontrolled way:
The recent storms have wreaked havoc  (mahvetmek) on crops.
She was determined to wreak revenge/vengeance on both him and his family.

Bir cevap yazın

E-posta hesabınız yayımlanmayacak. Gerekli alanlar * ile işaretlenmişlerdir


Contact Us